Search results for: acetylcholine-a-ubiquitous-signalling-substance

Acetylcholine a Ubiquitous Signalling Substance

Author : Yves Dunant
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This book presents an up-to-date review concerning acetylcholine, a messenger substance which is produced transiently in practically all living organisms, from bacteria to human beings. High acetylcholine concentrations have been encountered in growing parts of plants, in the royal jelly of bees, and in the human placenta. In vertebrates, many non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells, endothelial cells, immune cells or spermatozoids, secrete acetylcholine in response to specific signals. Acetylcholine is better known as a neurotransmitter substance, supporting synaptic transmission in the central and autonomic nervous systems. Transmission in these places is a point-to-point process which is relatively rapid and shows many anatomical and physiological variations, according to synapses and animal species. Much more rapid is transmission in giant and specialised synapses, such as the neuromuscular junctions and their homologues, in the electric organs of certain fish. The mechanisms of acetylcholine release in these ultra-rapid junctions have been revisited in recent decades and the picture has completely changed. As the book shows, acetylcholine signalling (also called cholinergic signalling) is of particular physiological and toxicological importance, since it can be perturbed by many natural or synthetic substances.

Muscarinic Receptors

Author : Allison D. Fryer
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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have played a key role in the advancement of knowledge of pharmacology and neurotransmission since the inception of studies in these fields, and the effects of naturally occurring drugs acting on muscarinic receptors were known and exploited for both therapeutic and non-therapeutic purposes for hundreds of years before the existence of the receptors themselves was recognized. This volume presents a broad yet detailed review of current knowledge of muscarinic receptors that will be valuable both to long-time muscarinic investigators and to those new to the field. It describes the detailed insights that have been obtained on the structure, function, and cell biology of muscarinic receptors. This volume also describes physiological analyses of muscarinic receptors and their roles in regulating the function of the brain and of a variety of peripheral tissues. This volume shows how the study of muscarinic receptors continues to provide new and surprising insights not just to the cholinergic system but to the broad areas of neurobiology, cell biology, pharmacology, and therapeutics.

Animal Physiology

Author : Knut Schmidt-Nielsen
File Size : 67.60 MB
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How do dolphins catch fish in murky water? Why do moths drink from puddles? How do birds' eggs breathe? How do animals work? In this revised and updated edition of the acclaimed text Animal Physiology, the answers are revealed. In clear and stimulating style, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen introduces and develops the fundamental principles of animal physiology according to major environmental features - oxygen, food and energy, temperature, and water. The structure of the book is unchanged from the previous edition, but every chapter has been updated to take into account recent developments, with numerous new references and figures. Animal Physiology is suitable as a text for undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in physiology. As with previous editions, students, teachers as well as researchers will find this book a valuable and enjoyable companion to course work and research.

Infectious Diseases and Substance Abuse

Author : Herman Friedman
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The use of recreational drugs of abuse by large numbers of individuals in this country and abroad has aroused serious concerns about the consequences of this activity. For example, it is recognized that marijuana is currently widely used as a recreational drug in the United States as well as other countries. Similarly, abuse of cocaine, especially crack cocaine, is considered to be an epidemic. “The war on drugs” by the US Government was directly aimed at the illicit use of cocaine, marijuana, and opiates as well as other drugs of abuse. Furthermore, alcohol is also considered a major problem of abuse in this country as well as in many other countries. It is estimated there are at least 10 million alcoholics in the United States alone. A signi?cant portion of those hospitalized with infectious diseases are alcoholics. Similarly, there have been many reports of association between marijuana use and increased susceptibility to infection as well as a re- tion between use of opiates and infections. The relationship between drug abuse and increased incidence of various infections has stimulated increased investi- tion of whether and how such drugs affect immune function, especially imp- tant for resistance against infectious agents. During the last decades, a wide variety of studies have shown that drugs of abuse, including marijuana, cocaine, or opiates, as well as alcohol, alter both neurophysiological as well as pathological responses of individuals.

Neurohumoral Coding of Brain Function

Author : R. Myers
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It is indeed a pleasure to welcome all of you to this Inter national Symposium on the Neurohumoral coding of Brain Function. Many of you have undertaken a very long trip in order to cross swords with some of the most fascinating issues in all of the neurosciences. Of particular satisfaction in this instance is the geographical representation of the sciences with individuals here from Europe and the Americas - South, Central and North. As we do battle, so to speak, with each of the questions raised during the next several days, we should remember that the problems faced by each of our fields are exceptionally difficult. In a way, this difficulty stems from two related facts: (1) we are trying to construct a conceptual bridgework between one disci pline and another; and (2) the distance between the research fabric of any two of these disciplines is vast. It would probably not be unfair to say that a large number of scientists feel relatively contented in remaining within the bound aries of their own area of specialization. In a sense, that is certainly justifiable today primarily because of the intensity of such specialization. However, the participants of this symposium, who reflect some of the major thrusts in biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and psychology, have in the main chosen to explore the pathways that cross the interface between mind and body - be tween behavior and brain.

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 1

Author : Victor R. Preedy
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Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume One: Foundations of Understanding, Tobacco, Alcohol, Cannabinoids, Opioids and Emerging Addictions provides the latest research in an area that shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others. The book also details how a further understanding of these commonalties can provide a platform for the study of specific addictions in greater depth, all in an effort to create new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment. The three volumes in this series address new research and challenges, offering comprehensive coverage on the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse, with each volume serving to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction, while also deepening our understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume One addresses tobacco, alcohol, cannabinoids, and opioids, with each section providing data on the general, molecular/cellular, and structural/functional neurological aspects of a given substance, along with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions. Provides a modern approach on the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions Fills an existing gap in the literature by proving a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse Includes a list of abbreviations, abstracts, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references in each chapter Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and the genome to whole body

Key Transitions in Animal Evolution

Author : Rob Desalle
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Tackling one of the most difficult and delicate of the evolutionary questions, this challenging book summarizes the more recent results in phylogenetics and developmental biology that address the evolution of key innovations in metazoans. Divided into three sections, the first considers the phylogenetic issues involving this area of the tree of life and the elucidation of those relationships that continue to trouble taxonomists. The second section considers the developmental biology of metazoan evolution including the development of the nervous system, sensory organs, and physiological maturation. Part three focuses on the evolution of pattern and process in the Metazoa.

Cell Signalling

Author : John T. Hancock
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'Cell Signalling' presents a carefully structured introduction to this subject, introducing those conserved features which underlie many different extra-and intracellular signalling systems.

Advances in Behavioral Biology

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Intracellular Signaling Mediators in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

Author : Marc Thiriet
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The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to phenomenological models of nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 4 is devoted to major sets of intracellular mediators that transmit signals upon stimulation of cell-surface receptors. Activation of signaling effectors triggers the release of substances stored in cellular organelles and/or gene transcription and protein synthesis. Complex stages of cell signaling can be studied using proper mathematical models, once the role of each component is carefully handled. Volume 4 also reviews various categories of cytosolic and/or nuclear mediators and illustrates some major signal transduction pathways, such as NFkappaB axis, oxygen sensing, and mechanotransduction.