Search results for: enclosed-experimental-ecosystems-and-scale

Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems and Scale

Author : John E. Petersen
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Enclosed ecosystem experiments have gained in popularity as research tools in ecological science, particularly in the study of coastal aquatic environments. These systems provide scientists with a degree of experimental control that is not achievable through field experiments. Yet to date, techniques for systematically extrapolating results from small-scale experimental ecosystems to larger, deeper, more open, more biologically diverse, and more heterogeneous ecosystems in nature have not been well developed. Likewise, researchers have lacked methods for comparing and extrapolating information among natural ecosystems that differ in scale. Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems and Scale: Tools for Understanding and Managing Coastal Ecosystems provides scientists, managers, and policy makers with an introduction to what has been termed the "problem of scale", and presents information that will allow for improved design and interpretation of enclosed experimental aquatic ecosystems. The book integrates the results of a 10-year research project involving a multi-disciplinary team of scientists and students to explore scale-related questions in a variety of coastal habitats. Anticipating use as a reference, the book has been designed so that individual sections and individual pages can function as stand alone units.

Multiphoton Processes in Atoms

Author : N. B. Delone
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Multiphoton ionization of atoms in intense laser-light fields is gaining ground as a spectroscopic diagnostic tool. In this volume, Delone and Krainov present their and others' theoretical descriptions of the processes occurring in atoms under conditions of multiple-photon impacts, in particular, the shift, broadening, and mixing of electronic states, which complicate the interpretation of spectra. The intended audience is the experimental physicist or physical chemist facing the task of unraveling an atomic multiphoton ionization spectrum. Comparisons of the theory to available experimental data are provided throughout. The topics of individual chapters include tunneling ionization, above-threshold ionization, ionization of multiply charged ions, resonance-enhanced ionization, super-intense radiation fields, and properties of Rydberg states in strong fields.

Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems and Scale

Author : John E. Petersen
File Size : 28.90 MB
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Enclosed ecosystem experiments have gained in popularity as research tools in ecological science, particularly in the study of coastal aquatic environments. These systems provide scientists with a degree of experimental control that is not achievable through field experiments. Yet to date, techniques for systematically extrapolating results from small-scale experimental ecosystems to larger, deeper, more open, more biologically diverse, and more heterogeneous ecosystems in nature have not been well developed. Likewise, researchers have lacked methods for comparing and extrapolating information among natural ecosystems that differ in scale. Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems and Scale: Tools for Understanding and Managing Coastal Ecosystems provides scientists, managers, and policy makers with an introduction to what has been termed the "problem of scale", and presents information that will allow for improved design and interpretation of enclosed experimental aquatic ecosystems. The book integrates the results of a 10-year research project involving a multi-disciplinary team of scientists and students to explore scale-related questions in a variety of coastal habitats. Anticipating use as a reference, the book has been designed so that individual sections and individual pages can function as stand alone units.

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

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The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference. Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches

Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology

Author : Robert H. Gardner
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-- Ecology

Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Author : Martin Solan
File Size : 71.66 MB
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The biological composition and richness of most of the Earth's major ecosystems are being dramatically and irreversibly transformed by anthropogenic activity. Yet, despite the vast areal extent of our oceans, the mainstay of research to-date in the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning arena has been weighted towards ecological observations and experimentation in terrestrial plant and soil systems. This book provides a framework for extending these concepts to a variety of marine systems. Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning is the first book to address the latest advances in biodiversity-function science using marine examples. It brings together contributions from the leading scientists in the field to provide an in-depth evaluation of the science, before offering a perspective on future research directions for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today and in the future.

Enclosed Experimental Marine Ecosystems A Review and Recommendations

Author : Carol M. Lalli
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The application of mesocosms, defined in this report as artificial 3 3 experimental enclosures ranging in size from 1 m to 10m , to address various problems in the marine sciences has been a relatively recent development. The application of the technology was dictated by the realization that many important ocean processes and interactions cannot be fully understood from observations in the natural environment or in smaller enclosures. Such studies involve, for example, determining the interactions between, and energy transfer from, one trophic level to another, the biogeochemical cycling of elements and compounds, etc. These and similar interactions and rate processes cannot normally be established in situations (nature) where the detection and quantification of rate processes are confused by advection and/or the inability to study the same populations over time. In the case of microcosms, mixed populations of primary producers, consumers, and carnivores cannot be maintained, in balance, for a sufficient length of time to determine normal interactions between the various components of these trophic levels. This report, prepared by SCOR Working Group 85, critically examines past applications of mesocosms to ocean research, though there is no attempt to comprehensively review all literature relevant to the subject. Further, the report outlines some important advances emanating from their use and provides recommendations for future applications. It constitutes the first of two reports from the Working Group (see Introduction).

Microcosm Manual for Environmental Impact Risk Assessment

Author : Yuhei Inamori
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This book offers a comprehensive guide to microcosms (N-systems) in multiple-species testing and aquatic ecosystem risk assessment. It provides standardized methods for creating the microbial ecosystem, and proposes a standardized microcosm system for environmental impact risk assessments. The book will be of interest to students and educators, researchers, government authorities, developers and manufacturers engaged in ecosystem preservation, water quality management personnel at sewage treatment or industrial effluent treatment facilities, and anyone involved in education, management and analysis evaluation for environmental standards and waste water quality standards.

Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems

Author : Md. Nazrul Islam
File Size : 84.23 MB
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Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) is one of the most holistic approaches to protecting marine and coastal ecosystems as it recognizes the need to protect entire marine ecosystems instead of individual species. After decades of pollution, habitat degradation and overfishing, now climate change and ocean acidification threaten the health of the ocean in unprecedented way. Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems illustrates the current status, trends, and effects of climate, natural disturbances and anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems. It demonstrates how to integrate different management tools and models in an up-to-date, multidisciplinary approach to environmental management. This indispensable guide provides several case studies from around the world and creates a framework for identifying management tools and their applications in coral reefs, fisheries, migratory species, marine islands and associated ecosystems such as mangroves and sea grass beds. It discusses the physical and chemical compositions of marine ecosystems along with the threats and actions needed to protect them. The application of model framework to several contemporary management issues include the modelling of harmful algal bloom dynamics, understanding the dispersal of sea lice, and the possible impacts on intertidal communities of the provision of novel offshore habitat. The results of extensive research by an international team of contributors, the Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems is designed to inform scientists, practitioners, academics, government and non-government policymakers on the particularities of marine ecosystems and assist them in understanding the EBM approaches in means of mitigation and adaptation of human activities that result in sustainability. These practices will help change the current methodologies used for resource assessment and the future regulations of marine resources.

Marine Eutrophication

Author : Michael Karydis
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Marine eutrophication has been recognized as a global problem with adverse effects on ecosystem’s health and the economies of coastal states. Most conventions regarding marine environmental protection of Regional Seas have given priority to eutrophication and relevant management practices. This book presents a global perspective of eutrophication in most of the Regional Seas, including the legal framework, assessment and management practices. Information on ecosystem’s impact as well as an outline of the methods used for assessing eutrophication is also provided. This volume will be useful to research students, marine scientists and policy makers working in marine environmental management. Key Features: Contributes to the understanding of the eutrophication processes and problems Presents an extensive account of the data analysis methods used for the quantitative assessment of eutrophication Looks the eutrophication status of the main regional seas Provides information on eutrophication politics and measures to mitigate eutrophication

Seascape Ecology

Author : Simon J. Pittman
File Size : 60.76 MB
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Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state-of-the-science in the application of landscape ecology to the seas and provides guidance for future research priorities. The first book devoted exclusively to this rapidly emerging and increasingly important discipline, it is comprised of contributions from researchers at the forefront of seascape ecology working around the world. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management. A growing number of marine scientists, geographers, and marine managers are asking questions about the marine environment that are best addressed with a landscape ecology perspective. Seascape Ecology represents the first serious effort to fill the gap in the literature on the subject. Key topics and features of interest include: The origins and history of seascape ecology and various approaches to spatial patterning in the sea The links between seascape patterns and ecological processes, with special attention paid to the roles played by seagrasses and salt marshes and animal movements through seascapes Human influences on seascape ecology—includes models for assessing human-seascape interactions A special epilogue in which three eminent scientists who have been instrumental in shaping the course of landscape ecology offer their insights and perspectives Seascape Ecology is a must-read for researchers and professionals in an array of disciplines, including marine biology, environmental science, geosciences, marine and coastal management, and environmental protection. It is also an excellent supplementary text for university courses in those fields.

Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Author :
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Ecological Engineering

Author : Patrick Kangas
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Less expensive and more environmentally appropriate than conventional engineering approaches, constructed ecosystems are a promising technology for environmental problem solving. Undergraduates, graduate students, and working professionals need an introductory text that details the biology and ecology of this rapidly developing discipline, known as

Marine Mesocosms

Author : G.D. Grice
File Size : 82.92 MB
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Techniques developed for enclosing viable natural planktonic ecosystems pro vided the opportunity for prolonged and detailed investigation of dynamic events within the pelagic system of a known water body. Recent investigations into plankton ecology, using enclosure systems in dif ferent marine environments, are discussed in relation to the data obtained from the Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, plastic-sphere experiments of 1960 and 1962. Three types of modern enclosure experiments are recognized: floating systems within nutrient levels maintained or running down, and benthic attached systems. The review largely discusses results from the two kinds of floating systems. Processes at several trophic levels have been investigated in enclosures. This review attempts to draw together details from all experimental systems to emphasize the enclosures' contribution to our understanding of planktonic systems. Enclosures made it possible to examine primary production processes, particularly in relation to inorganic nutrient availability and water-column sta bility. Recent experiments have used the understanding of these processes as a management technique in maintaining different planktonic systems. Relation ships between primary and secondary trophic levels are not always easy to inter pret, since the growth of primary carnivore populations can often determine the survival of zooplankton populations. Nevertheless, the development of co horts of herbivorous zooplankton has been followed in several enclosures, yield ing useful information on development times and production rates. In enclosed systems it is thus possible to directly relate tertiary level production to inorganic nutrient input, and to calculate production rates and exchange efficiencies at several trophic levels.

Ecology Abstracts

Author :
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Coverage: 1982- current; updated: monthly. This database covers current ecology research across a wide range of disciplines, reflecting recent advances in light of growing evidence regarding global environmental change and destruction. Major ares of subject coverage include: Algae/lichens, Animals, Annelids, Aquatic ecosystems, Arachnids, Arid zones, Birds, Brackish water, Bryophytes/pteridophytes, Coastal ecosystems, Conifers, Conservation, Control, Crustaceans, Ecosyst em studies, Fungi, Grasses, Grasslands, High altitude environments, Human ecology, Insects, Legumes, Mammals, Management, Microorganisms, Molluscs, Nematodes, Paleo-ecology, Plants, Pollution studies, Reptiles, River basins, Soil, TAiga/tundra, Terrestrial ecosystems, Vertebrates, Wetlands, Woodlands.

Water Pollution Biology

Author : P.D. Abel
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Presents an examination of the scale of water pollution problems, and, through case studies, explores the type of investigations biologists need to undertake in solving them. The text draws comparisons between British and European practice,

Ecosystems Oceans

Author : Trevor Day
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The Ecosystems series is the only source that offers a complete understanding of global ecology. Illustrated with beautiful full-colour photographs, each volume combines the "hard sciences," such as biology and chemistry, with history, economics, and environmental studies. Each ecosystem is presented in its entirety with details on its history, biology, wildlife, beauty, problems, and influence on culture. This interdisciplinary approach emphasizes the complex, interrelated nature of each biome - giving readers the most integrated portrayal of the natural world available. Each volume spans Europe, Asia, Australia, Antarctica, and the Americas to present a particular ecosystem. Coverage offers a basic introduction to ecological concepts and demonstrates how these concepts influence the complex relationship between humans and the environment.

Biological Oceanography An Introduction

Author : Carol Lalli
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This popular undergraduate textbook offers students a firm grounding in the fundamentals of biological oceanography. As well as a clear and accessible text, learning is enhanced with numerous illustrations including a colour section, thorough chapter summaries, and questions with answers and comments at the back of the book. The comprehensive coverage of this book encompasses the properties of seawater which affect life in the ocean, classification of marine environments and organisms, phytoplankton and zooplankton, marine food webs, larger marine animals (marine mammals, seabirds and fish), life on the seafloor, and the way in which humans affect marine ecosystems. The second edition has been thoroughly updated, including much data available for the first time in a book at this level. There is also a new chapter on human impacts - from harvesting vast amounts of fish, pollution, and deliberately or accidentally transferring marine organisms to new environments. This book complements the Open University Oceanography Series, also published by Butterworth-Heinemann, and is a set text for the Open University third level course, S330. A leading undergraduate text New chapter on human impacts - a highly topical subject Expanded colour plate section

Ecotoxicology Problems and Approaches

Author : Simon A. Levin
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Ecotoxicology is the science that seeks to predict the impacts of chemi cals upon ecosystems. This involves describing and predicting ecological changes ensuing from a variety of human activities that involve release of xenobiotic and other chemicals to the environment. A fundamental principle of ecotoxicology is embodied in the notion of change. Ecosystems themselves are constantly changing due to natural processes, and it is a challenge to distinguish the effects of anthropogenic activities against this background of fluctuations in the natural world. With the frustratingly large, diverse, and ever-emerging sphere of envi ronmental problems that ecotoxicology must address, the approaches to individual problems also must vary. In part, as a consequence, there is no established protocol for application of the science to environmental prob lem-solving. The conceptual and methodological bases for ecotoxicology are, how ever, in their infancy, and thus still growing with new experiences. In deed, the only robust generalization for research on different ecosystems and different chemical stresses seems to be a recognition of the necessity of an ecosystem perspective as focus for assessment. This ecosystem basis for ecotoxicology was the major theme of a previous pUblication by the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University, a special issue of Environmental Management (Levin et al. 1984). With that effort, we also recognized an additional necessity: there should be a continued develop ment of methods and expanded recognition of issues for ecotoxicology and for the associated endeavor of environmental management.

Advances in Ecological Research

Author : Hal Caswell
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Advances in Ecological Research presents a wide range of papers on all aspects of ecology. Topics include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology. The evolutionary ecology of carnivorous plants Trophic interactions in population cycles of voles and lemmings Scale effects and extrapolation in ecological experiments