Search results for: environmental-life-cycle-assessment

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Open Access

Author : Olivier Jolliet
File Size : 57.20 MB
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Environmental Life Cycle Assessment is a pivotal guide to identifying environmental problems and reducing related impacts for companies and organizations in need of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA, a unique sustainability tool, provides a framework that addresses a growing demand for practical technological solutions. Detailing each phase of the LCA methodology, this textbook covers the historical development of LCA, presents the general principles and characteristics of LCA, and outlines the corresponding standards for good practice determined by the International Organization for Standardization. It also explains how to identify the critical aspects of an LCA, provides detailed examples of LCA analysis and applications, and includes illustrated problems and solutions with concrete examples from water management, electronics, packaging, automotive, and other industries. In addition, readers will learn how to: Use consistent criteria to realize and evaluate an LCA independently of individual interests Understand the LCA methodology and become familiar with existing databases and methods based on the latest results of international research Analyze and critique a completed LCA Apply LCA methodology to simple case studies Geared toward graduate and undergraduate students studying environmental science and industrial ecology, as well as practicing environmental engineers, and sustainability professionals who want to teach themselves LCA good practices, Environmental Life Cycle Assessment demonstrates how to conduct environmental assessments for products throughout their life cycles. It presents existing methods and recent developments in the growing field of LCA and systematically covers goal and system definition, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation.

Environmental Life Cycle Analysis

Author : David F. Ciambrone
File Size : 26.86 MB
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The trend in industry and with the EPA is to prevent wastes before they are created instead of treating or disposing of them later. This book assists design/systems engineers and managers in designing or changing a product or set of processes in order to minimize the negative impact on the environment during its life cycle. It explains the overall concept of environmental life cycle analysis and breaks down each of the stages, providing a clear picture of the issues involved. Chapters 1 and 2 provide an introduction and overview of the environmental life cycle analysis process. Chapter 3 establishes the basis and methodologies required for analysis through description of the basic framework, definition of boundaries, use of checklists, data gathering processes, construction of models, and interpretation of results. Templates and special cases that may be encountered and how to handle them are addressed in Chapter 4. Chapters 5 through 9 go into detail about modeling, issues, and data collection for each stage of the product life cycle. The final chapter provides a summary of the various steps and offers ideas on how to present data and reports.

Environmental Life cycle Assessment

Author : Mary Ann Curran
File Size : 37.25 MB
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This is a comprehensive resource on the rediscovered area of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as it can be applied to human health and the Environment. This book will be organized in order of how a life cycle assessment is done. The reader will also receive a brief history of LCA and it's re-emergence in 1990. There will be a complete investigation of how LCA can be used to help industry meet their environmental goals.

Life Cycle Assessment Handbook

Author : Mary Ann Curran
File Size : 57.82 MB
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The first book of its kind, the LCA Handbook will become an invaluable resource for environmentally progressive manufacturers and suppliers, product and process designers, executives and managers, and government officials who want to learn about this essential component of environmental sustainability.

Environmental Life Cycle Costing

Author : David Hunkeler
File Size : 61.24 MB
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Balances Scientific and Economic Points of View to Thoroughly Address Management Issues Responding to the need for clarification and benchmarks, Environmental Life Cycle Costing provides the fundamental basis on which to establish a definitive methodology. Clearly defining environmental LCC, this book balances scientific and economic points of view and thoroughly addresses the management perspective. Demonstrates the Process From Problem Definition to Analysis, to Presentation The book focuses on environmental LCC but also analyzes conventional LCC and societal LCC, providing case studies for each. It presents the link between life cycle costing and life cycle assessment and then explores public, private, and societal options. The book also explains all components of the method using the cross-cutting example of a washing machine. It also provides categorizations that permit the method to be adapted or streamlined as a function of the time available to the practitioner. Case study boxes demonstrate the process for carrying out an LCC, from problem definition to analysis and ultimate presentation to the decision maker. Experts Integrate Conventional Thinking with Emerging Ideas Environmental LCC summarizes all costs associated with the life cycle of a product regardless of who bears those costs. It includes present and future money flows as well as those to be internalized in the decision relevant future. A collaboration of experts at the forefront of research, this book ties conventional thinking on life cycle costs into emerging theory and practice by including environmental and social cost analyses and linking LCC to the environmental and social pillars of sustainability.

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services

Author : Chris T. Hendrickson
File Size : 84.38 MB
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Environmental life cycle assessment is often thought of as cradle to grave and therefore as the most complete accounting of the environmental costs and benefits of a product or service. However, as anyone who has done an environmental life cycle assessment knows, existing tools have many problems: data is difficult to assemble and life cycle studies take months of effort. A truly comprehensive analysis is prohibitive, so analysts are often forced to simply ignore many facets of life cycle impacts. But the focus on one aspect of a product or service can result in misleading indications if that aspect is benign while other aspects pollute or are otherwise unsustainable. This book summarizes the EIO-LCA method, explains its use in relation to other life cycle assessment models, and provides sample applications and extensions of the model into novel areas. A final chapter explains the free, easy-to-use software tool available on a companion website. (www.eiolca.net) The software tool provides a wealth of data, summarizing the current U.S. economy in 500 sectors with information on energy and materials use, pollution and greenhouse gas discharges, and other attributes like associated occupational deaths and injuries. The joint project of twelve faculty members and over 20 students working together over the past ten years at the Green Design Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, the EIO-LCA has been applied to a wide range of products and services. It will prove useful for research, industry, and in economics, engineering, or interdisciplinary classes in green design.

Harmonisation of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment for Agriculture

Author : Eric Audsley
File Size : 51.36 MB
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Integrated Life Cycle and Risk Assessment for Industrial Processes and Products

Author : Guido Sonnemann
File Size : 71.83 MB
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Life-cycle assessment is a methodology used to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product, process, or service during its life cycle, and risk assessment is a tool to evaluate potential hazards to human health and the environment introduced by pollutant emissions. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals call for, among other objectives, responsible consumption and production by decoupling environmental resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth and human well-being. Life-cycle assessment and risk assessment are both analytical system approaches that allow scientists and other decision makers to address these issues and objectives according to the current understanding of environmental mechanisms. This book is the first attempt to illustrate the existing interfaces between life-cycle assessment and risk assessment and to indicate options for further integration of both tools. The second edition: Focuses on sustainability Considers new developments in life-cycle assessment and environmental risk assessment over the last ten years at the international level Introduces broader concepts and discussions on integrative versus the complementary use of life-cycle and risk assessments Extends the scope of integrated life-cycle and risk assessments to critical raw materials Includes more case studies and discusses engineered nanomaterials Featuring contributions from leading experts, Integrated Life-Cycle and Risk Assessment for Industrial Processes and Products is a great reference for graduate students and professionals in environmental management and intends to catalyze communication between life-cycle assessment and risk assessment experts and scientists in academia, industry, and governmental agencies. The practical format of the book—illustrated with flowcharts, examples, exercises, and concrete applications—makes it a useful manual for analyzing situations and making decisions.

Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Jeroen B. Guinée
File Size : 57.80 MB
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Environmental policy aims at the transition to sustainable production and consumption. This is taking place in different ways and at different levels. In cases where businesses are continuously active to improve the environmental performance of their products and activities, the availability of knowledge on environmental impacts is indispensable. The integrated assessment of all environmental impacts from cradle to grave is the basis for many decisions relating to achieving improved products and services. The assessment tool most widely used for this is the environmental Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA. Before you is the new Handbook of LCA replacing the previous edition of 1992. New developments in LCA methodology from all over the world have been discussed and, where possible, included in this new Handbook. Integration of all developments into a new, consistent method has been the main aim for the new Handbook. The thinking on environment and sustainability is, however, quickly evolving so that it is already clear now that this new LCA Handbook does not embrace the very latest developments. Therefore, further revisions will have to take place in the future. A major advantage of this Handbook is that it now also advises which procedures should be followed to achieve adequate, relevant and accepted results. Furthermore, the distinction between detailed and simplified LCA makes this Handbook more broadly applicable, while guidance is provided as to which additional information can be relevant for specialised applications.

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Rita Schenck
File Size : 52.13 MB
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Environmental Life Cycle Assessment is an introductory college level textbook on the science of Life Cycle Assessment. It provides materials for a full year of study. Over thirty LCA experts were brought together by the American Center for Life Cycle Assessment, with full redundant editing to provide a consistent and comprehensive coverage of this broad field of study. Exercises are provide for each topic, covering everything from the nuts and bolts of the science to issues such as ethics and communication. Students using this textbook need only practical experience (as can be provided in lab courses) to be able to sit the exam for Life Cycle Assessment Certified Professionals.

Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Ralph E Horne
File Size : 32.40 MB
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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has developed in Australia over the last 20 years into a technique for systematically identifying the resource flows and environmental impacts associated with the provision of products and services. Interest in LCA has accelerated alongside growing demand to assess and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across different manufacturing and service sectors. Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the reflective practice of LCA, and provides critical insight into the technique and how it can be used as a problem-solving tool. It describes the distinctive strengths and limitations of LCA, with an emphasis on practice in Australia, as well as the application of LCA in waste management, the built environment, water and agriculture. Supported by examples and case studies, each chapter investigates contemporary challenges for environmental assessment and performance improvement in these key sectors. LCA methodologies are compared to the emerging climate change mitigation policy and practice techniques, and the uptake of ‘quick’ LCA and management tools are considered in the light of current and changing environmental agendas. The authors also debate the future prospects for LCA technique and applications.

Product Life Cycle Assessment to Reduce Health Risks and Environmental Impacts

Author : Gregory A. Keoleian
File Size : 37.59 MB
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Life cycle design is a proactive approach for integrating pollution prevention and resource conservation strategies into the development of more ecologically and economically sustainable product systems. Cross media pollutant transfer and the shifting of other impacts can be avoided by addressing the entire life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition, materials processing, manufacturing and assembly, use and service, retirement, disposal and the ultimate fate of residuals. The goal of life cycle design is to minimize aggregate risks and impacts over this life cycle. This goal can only be attained through the balancing of environmental, performance, cost, cultural, legal, and technical requirements of the product system. Concepts such as concurrent design, total quality management, cross- disciplinary teams, and multi-attribute decision making are essential elements of life cycle design that help meet these goals. The framework for life cycle design was developed to be applicable for all product domains. It was written to assist not only design professionals but all other constituents who have an important role in life cycle design including corporate executives, product managers, production workers, distributors, environmental health and safety staff, purchasers, accountants, marketers, salespersons, legal staff, consumers, and government regulators. A coordinated effort is required to institute changes needed for successful implementation of life cycle design. Part I seeks to promote the reduction of environmental imparts and health risks through a systems approach to design. The approach is based on the product life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition and processing, manufacturing, use/service, resource recovery, and disposal. A life cycle design framework was developed to provide guidance for more effectively conserving resources and energy, preventing pollution, and reducing the aggregate environmental impacts and health risks associated with a product system. This framework addresses the product, process, distribution, and management/information components of each product system. Part II describes the three components of a life cycle assessment (inventory analysis, impact analysis, and improvement analysis) as well as scoping activities, presents a brief overview of the development of the life cycle assessment process, and develops guidelines and principles for implementation of a product life cycle assessment. The major states in a life cycle are raw materials acquisition, manufacturing, consumer use/reuse/maintenance, and recycle/waste management. The basic steps of performing a life cycle inventory (defining the goals and system boundaries, including scoping; gathering and developing data; presenting and reviewing data; and interpreting and communicating results) are presented along with the general issues to be addressed. The system boundaries, assumptions, and conventions to be addressed in each stage of the inventory are presented.

Regional Environmental Life Cycle Assessment for Improving Food Chain Sustainability

Author : Pegah Amani
File Size : 84.68 MB
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Current LCA methodologies employed to assess the intensity of environmental impacts lack a regional view, even though the sensitivity of the receiving environment is important in determining the specific levels of risks. This book seeks to redress the balance and develop a globally applicable, affordable and feasible approach to determine differentiated sets of possible impacts with higher environmental burdens derived from food supply chain processes. To this end, the earth’s land surface is divided into so-called “ecoregions”, defined by their specific characteristics such as soil, climate, and topography/physiography, and associated with the relevant risks for each ecoregion. The use of ecoregions and respective environmental risks can help enterprises recognize the environmental effect of their products but also help improve the reliability of comparisons between LCA results in different regions.

Social Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
File Size : 25.62 MB
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This book highlights the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) of the agri-sector for rice, sugarcane, and cassava in Thailand and the food sector. It also presents a range of models, indices, impact categories, etc. for SLCA that are currently being developed for industrial applications. Though SLCA was introduced in 2010, it is still relatively new compared to environmental life cycle assessment (ELCA).

Life Cycle Design

Author : Francesca Thiebat
File Size : 48.69 MB
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This book proposes an economic and environmental assessment tool to help private and public building designers and owners determine the global sustainability value of green buildings from a life cycle perspective. As it demonstrates, sustainable life cycle tools for building design and construction can help to achieve successfully integrated architecture. The first part of the book defines the relationship between environmental and economic aspects in a sustainable design approach and illustrates how life cycle methodologies, including Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing, can be applied to life cycle design. Further, it highlights methods for calculating costs from LCA data, taking into consideration both discounted cash flow and external costs. In turn, the second part of the book presents an experimental design model, the Life Cycle Design Model (LCDM), which is based on a life cycle design approach that can be used to produce two different outcomes based on two assessment levels. The first assessment level involves creating a grid, called a Design Matrix, which is useful in the design process. The second assessment level involves drawing on LCA and LCC results to develop a user-friendly tool for designers and other actors involved in the building process so that they can assess the most sustainable design option using €CO, a factor that combines the environmental and energy effects of the building system with time and costs. Selected case studies illustrate the practical application of life cycle analysis and show how reflecting the environmental impacts and costs can improve the sustainability of buildings. The LCDM represents a transdisciplinary tool for the design team and, at the same time, allows information on users’ needs and building performance to be communicated between experts and non-experts.

Social Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
File Size : 84.61 MB
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This book highlights the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) of the energy and textile sectors. It also presents a range of models, indices, impact categories, etc. for SLCA that are currently being developed for industrial applications. Though SLCA was introduced in 2010, it is still relatively new compared to environmental life cycle assessment (ELCA).

Nordic Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Kim Christiansen
File Size : 25.84 MB
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On cover: Environmental.

Life Cycle Analysis of Nanoparticles

Author : Ashok Vaseashta
File Size : 32.41 MB
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Investigative tools for analyzing environmental nanoparticles with health impactsBasic theories and models of life cycle analysis applied to nanomaterialsConnects LCA, detection technologies and sustainability This book addresses the ways life cycle assessment (LCA) concepts can be applied to analyze the fate of nanoparticles in a variety of environmental and manufacturing settings. After introducing LCA theory and modeling concepts, the work discusses risks associated with carbon nanotubes, graphene, silver, fullerenes, iron oxides and other particles generated by manufacturing or medical diagnostics. Chapters in the text discuss biomolecules and the application of in vivo biosensors. Also covered are fate analysis, risk assessment, toxicology and nanopathology with a focus on human health and disease.

Environmental Life Cycle Assessment

Author : Olivier Jolliet
File Size : 77.37 MB
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Life Cycle Assessment Student Handbook

Author : Mary Ann Curran
File Size : 31.11 MB
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This student version of the popular bestseller, Life Cycle Assessment Handbook, is not a watered-down version of the original, but retains all of the important information and valuable lessons provided in the first book, along with helpful problems and solutions for the student learning about Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). As the last several decades have seen a dramatic rise in the application of LCA in decision making, the interest in the life cycle concept as an environmental management and sustainability tool continues to grow. The LCA Student Handbook offers a look at the role that life cycle information, in the hands of companies, governments and consumers, may have in improving the environmental performance of products and technologies. It concisely and clearly presents the various aspects of LCA in order to help the reader better understand the subject. The international success of the sustainability paradigm needs the participation of many stakeholders, including citizens, corporations, academia, and NGOs. The handbook links LCA and responsible decision making and how the life cycle concept is a critical element in environmental sustainability. It covers issues such as building capacity in developing countries and emerging economies so that they are more capable of harnessing the potential in LCA for sustainable development. Governments play a very important role with the leverage they have through procurement, regulation, international treaties, tax incentives, public outreach, and other policy tools. This compilation of points to the clear trend for incorporating life cycle information into the design and development processes for products and policies, just as quality and safety concerns are now addressed throughout product design and development. The Life Cycle Assessment Student Handbook is not just for students. It is also a valuable resource for practitioners looking for a desktop reference on LCA or for any engineer, manager, or policy-maker wishing to learn about LCA.