Search results for: environmental-simulation

Environmental Simulation

Author : R.W. Marans
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This volume is intended to provide an overview and scholarly analysis of state-of-the-art developments within the field of environmental simulation research. Environmental simulation involves the presentation of scale model previews, full-scale mock-ups, and computer images of planned environments and activities taking place within them to designers and to prospective users of those settings. Environmental simulations are under taken for many purposes, including (1) the training of environmental de sign students and professionals, (2) the assessment of people's environ mental preferences, and (3) the incorporation of observers' assessments of simulated settings into the planning, design, and renovation of actual envi ronments to maximize the degree of fit between occupants' needs and the arrangement of their physical surroundings. Environmental simulation research has expanded rapidly during the past two decades as the result of increasing collaboration between behav ioral and social scientists, environmental designers, and professional plan ners. During this period, alternative conceptual and methodological ap proaches to environmental simulation have emerged, and numerous programs of simulation research have been initiated worldwide. To date, however, no attempt has been made to present a comprehensive review and assessment of these research developments and an analysis of their implications for design and public policy. Accordingly, the major objectives of this volume are to provide an overview of key conceptual and meth odological advances within the field of environmental simulation research and to place these diverse developments within a broader scientific and public policy context.

Reachable Futures Structural Change and the Practical Credibility of Environmental Simulation Models

Author : Olufemi O. Osidele
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Simulation modeling is arguably the most versatile scientific tool for predicting the future environment. However, the reliability of model-based predictions is limited to the behavior domain defined by the historical data employed for conceptualizing and calibrating the model. Future changes in external inputs and internal structure tend to produce system behavior significantly different from prior predictions. To abate this seeming lack of credibility, it is now customary to qualify model predictions with uncertainty estimates. This dissertation explores the complementary approach of back-casting future scenarios. Centered on the analysis of uncertainty, a methodological framework is developed for the computational evaluation of environmental futures, driven by stakeholder participation as a means for establishing credibility in the model. The analysis reveals possible structural change between the observed past and speculated future scenarios by comparing the ranking of key sources of uncertainty in model outputs. Three sampling-based methods are employed: Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis (RSA), Tree-Structured Density Estimation (TSDE), and Uniform Covering by Probabilistic Rejection (UCPR). RSA and TSDE are tested for identifying and ranking the key factors that influence ecological behavior in Lake Oglethorpe, Georgia, and UCPR, for recovering parameters of a rainfall-runoff model of an experimental watershed near Loch Ard, Scotland. The framework is applied to an integrated assessment of ecological behavior in Lake Lanier, Georgia. Stakeholders' fears and desires for the future state of the reservoir are elicited and encoded for analysis. The results indicate: (i) that the desired future is more reachable, and accompanied by more significant structural change, than the feared future, and (ii) that sediment-water-nutrient interactions, secondary production, and microbial processes play a critical role in the future ecological behavior of the reservoir. Thus, it is possible to: (i) confirm or refute stakeholder concerns for the future environment, (ii) inform priorities for future environmental policy actions, (iii) identify critical gaps in current knowledge, in order to prioritize future scientific research, and (iv) promote adaptive community learning, through the continual mutual feedback between scenario-generation and systematic analysis. By bridging the gap between stakeholder imagination and scientific theory, through computational analysis, the framework provides a promising direction for integrated environmental assessment.

Environmental Simulation Chambers Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Author : Ian Barnes
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.

GIS and Environmental Modeling

Author : Michael F. Goodchild
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GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues Michael F. Goodchild, Louis T. Steyaert, Bradley O. Parks, Carol Johnston, David Maidment, Michael Crane, and Sandi Glendinning, Editors With growing pressure on natural resources and landscapes there is an increasing need to predict the consequences of any changes to the environment. Modelling plays an important role in this by helping our understanding of the environment and by forecasting likely impacts. In recent years moves have been made to link models to Geographical Information Systems to provide a means of analysing changes over an area as well as over time. GIS and Environmental Modeling explores the progress made to date in integrating these two software systems. Approaches to the subject are made from theoretical, technical as well as data stand points. The existing capabilities of current systems are described along with important issues of data availability, accuracy and error. Various case studies illustrate this and highlight the common concepts and issues that exist between researchers in different environmental fields. The future needs and prospects for integrating GIS and environmental models are also explored with developments in both data handling and modelling discussed. The book brings together the knowledge and experience of over 100 researchers from academic, commercial and government backgrounds who work in a wide range of disciplines. The themes followed in the text provide a fund of knowledge and guidance for those involved in environmental modelling and GIS. The book is easily accessible for readers with a basic GIS knowledge and the ideas and results of the research are clearly illustrated with both colour and black and white graphics.

Environmental Simulation

Author : Kenneth H. Silber
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Computational Simulation in Architectural and Environmental Acoustics

Author : Tetsuya Sakuma
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This book reviews a variety of methods for wave-based acoustic simulation and recent applications to architectural and environmental acoustic problems. Following an introduction providing an overview of computational simulation of sound environment, the book is in two parts: four chapters on methods and four chapters on applications. The first part explains the fundamentals and advanced techniques for three popular methods, namely, the finite-difference time-domain method, the finite element method, and the boundary element method, as well as alternative time-domain methods. The second part demonstrates various applications to room acoustics simulation, noise propagation simulation, acoustic property simulation for building components, and auralization. This book is a valuable reference that covers the state of the art in computational simulation for architectural and environmental acoustics.

Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Modeling and Simulation April 19 22 1976 Cincinnati Ohio

Author : Wayne R. Ott
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Simulation of Ecological and Environmental Models

Author : Miguel F. Acevedo
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Given the importance of interdisciplinary work in sustainability, Simulation of Ecological and Environmental Models introduces the theory and practice of modeling and simulation as applied in a variety of disciplines that deal with earth systems, the environment, ecology, and human-nature interactions. Based on the author's many years of teaching g

GIS Environmental Modeling and Engineering

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Spatial dimensions need to be properly captured if modeling and engineering techniques are to be successfully applied in addressing environmental problems. The links between the geographical information systems (GIS) that capture this data, simulation modeling, and engineering offer tremendous possibilities for building versatile support systems fo

Multi Agent Based Simulations Applied to Biological and Environmental Systems

Author : Adamatti, Diana Francisca
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The discovery and development of new computational methods have expanded the capabilities and uses of simulations. With agent-based models, the applications of computer simulations are significantly enhanced. Multi-Agent-Based Simulations Applied to Biological and Environmental Systems is a pivotal reference source for the latest research on the implementation of autonomous agents in computer simulation paradigms. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant applications, such as biodiversity conservation, pollution reduction, and environmental risk assessment, this publication is an ideal source for researchers, academics, engineers, practitioners, and professionals seeking material on various issues surrounding the use of agent-based simulations.