Search results for: genome-exploitation

Genomics of Disease

Author : J.P. Gustafson
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This title develops from the 24th Stadler symposium. It explores the general theme "GENOME EXPLOITATION: Data Mining the Genomes". The idea behind the theme is to discuss and illustrate how scientists are going to characterize and make use of the massive amount of information being accumulated about plant and animal genomes. The book presents a state-of-the-art picture on mining the Genome databases. Its chapters are authored by key stars in the field.

Genome Exploitation

Author : J. Perry Gustafson
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Genome Exploitation: Data Mining the Genome is developed from the 23rd Stadler Genetic Symposium. This volume discusses and illustrates how scientists are going to characterize and make use of the massive amount of information being accumulated about the plant and animal genomes. Genome Exploitation: Data Mining the Genome is a state-of-the-art picture on mining the Genome databases. This is one of the few times that researchers in both plants and animals will be working together to create a seminal data resource.

Gene Conservation and Exploitation

Author : J. Perry Gustafson
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The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) tuber is a major food source in many countries of the world, and subsequently potato has been the target of a good deal of effort directed at engineering disease and herbicide tolerance, and improvements in various crop characteristics. Consequently investigations into the regulation of gene expression in tubers is relevant to these endeavours, as tubers are the main target organ for modification of gene expression. We have been interested in the regulation of genes in tubers for these reasons. Morphologically tubers are modified stems, which have enlarged radially by limited cell division and substantial expansion. At the molecular level, tuber development is characterised by a massive increase in starch deposition and the synthesis of a limited number of abundant proteins. These include proteinase inhibitors and a 40kd group of proteins called patatin, which are acyl hydrolases. Together these proteins account for over 50% of tuber proteins (reviewed by Bevan, 1991). The synthesis of these proteins has parallels to the synthesis of other somatic storage proteins, especially the VSP proteins of soybean. In both potato and soybean, removal of the sink for these proteins (tubers and pods, respectively) causes deposition in other tissues (Staswick, 1990). It is hypothesised that transcriptional control of the genes encoding these proteins is regulated in part by source-sink relationships of metabolites or other factors. In the case of VSPs, both amino acid levels and jasmonic acid play a major regulatory role (Staswick et aI.

Exploitation of Fungi

Author : G. D. Robson
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The fungi are a highly diverse kingdom of eukaryotic microbes. Recent advances in molecular genetics, together with the release of whole genome sequences of an increasing number of fungi, are facilitating their exploitation and commercialisation. Fungi have the ability to secrete large quantities of proteins of commercial value, and their complex secondary metabolic pathways produce a diverse range of bioactive compounds which have had a major impact in the pharmaceuticals market. In addition, the fungi themselves are increasingly being developed as alternatives to conventional chemically-based pest control strategies, and as bioremediation agents capable of transforming pollutants in the soil environment. With chapters written by international experts, this volume highlights current and future biological, biochemical, and molecular exploitation of the fungi in biotechnology. It will have broad appeal, not only to mycologists and microbiologists, but also to biomedical scientists, biotechnologists, environmental and molecular scientists, plant pathologists and geneticists.

Owning the Genome

Author : David B. Resnik
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A clear, introductory overview of the issues surrounding gene patenting.

Exploitation of Microorganisms

Author : D.G. Jones
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Microbiology may be described as one of the younger sciences with its history, as a precise subject, only dating as far back as Pasteur in the mid 1800s and his revelation both of the role of microorganisms in nature and their importance to human welfare. Medical scientists rapidly took up the challenge, with their area of microbiology flourishing and expanding almost in complete isolation from the rest of biology. We now know, of course, that microorganisms have always played an important, if not essential role, in the biosphere with fermented foods and beverages, plant and animal diseases and nutrient cycling foremost in their sphere of activities. Within the last twenty years, microbiology has received two enormous boosts with the developments in microbial genetics and genetic engineering probably being the most influential, and the greater awareness of pollution and environmental sustainability following a close second. In 1990, your editor had the privilege and pleasure of being elected as President of The Association of Applied Biologists in the United King dom and, as the topic for his three-day Presidential Conference, chose 'The exploitation of microorganisms in applied biology'. This meeting stimu lated great interest in a wide range of subject areas, from weed control to nematology, from plant breeding to plant pathology, from mushrooms to mycorrhiza. The proceedings of this meeting were published in Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 24, 1990.

The Implicit Genome

Author : Lynn Helena Caporale
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In its beautiful simplicity, the double-helicaln stucture of DNA had entranced us into believing that we can fully understand the information content of a DNA sequence, simply by treating it as text that is read in a linear fashion. While we have learned much based on this assumption, there is much we have missed. Far from a passive tape running through a reader, genomes contain information that appears in new forms which create regions with distinct behavior. The chapters in this volume touch on one or more of three interconnected themes; information can be implied, rather than explicit, in a genome; information can lead to focused and/or regulated changes in nucleotide sequences; information that affects the probability of distinct classes of mutation has implications for evolutionary theory.

The National Plant Genome Initiative

Author : National Research Council
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The National Plant Genome Initiative was launched in 1998 as a long-term project to explore DNA structure and function in plants so that useful properties of plants can be understood, improved, and ultimately harnessed to address national needs, including agriculture, nutrition, energy and waste reduction. Experts in the community were asked to consider how to build on current accomplishments in order to address major questions in plant biology and to make recommendations for objectives for the next five-year phase of the Initiative.

Exploitation of Metadata in Molecular Genomics Studies

Author : Jamison McCorrison
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There is a great deal of interest in analyzing very large data sets in the biomedical sciences. This is due to the availability of high-throughput assays, such as DNA sequencing technologies and high-resolution imaging devices, advances in data storage and high-performance computing, and analytic techniques rooted in artificial intelligence and machine learning. However, many modern data sets are constructed from individual component data sets which create issues for data harmonization and scientific integration. 'Metadata,' i.e., data about the data within component data sets, can be used to facilitate integration and drawing inferences from the combined data sets, but requires care and is sensitive to how those data can be used. Metadata also arises in many situations in which the combination of data sets has more subtle and nuanced aspects to it, such as in analyzing species differences in evolutionary studies, where the species data are often collected independently with different techniques, making it important to know what specific protocols and techniques were used in order to organize and enable relevant comparisons and avoid batch effects, false positives, and other phenomena associated with heterogeneous data sets. I describe the application of statistical methods in four different contexts in which metadata are available. First, I describe an analysis involving the classification of emotions recorded as part of a digital therapeutic implemented in smart phone app designed to reduce stress. Meta data arise when considering the sources and settings of individual data collections. Second, I consider an analysis relating fibroblast transcriptomes to longevity across 49 avian species, where each species has a unique genome, but only a subset of species actually have available reference genomes. Third, I describe studies exploring variation in single cell gene expression patterns from studies of the human brain using expression profiles generated with different protocols and which have different quality control profiles. Fourth, I consider the analysis of genetically-mediated drug targets for longevity in which information from different sources is used to make more compelling and comprehensive statements of the candidacy of any one gene for drug development. I also consider general themes about the use of metadata in contemporary biomedical sciences and discuss areas for future research.

Genomics and Molecular Genetics of Plant Nematode Interactions

Author : John Jones
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This book reviews developments in the molecular biology of plant-nematode interactions that have been driven by the application of genomics tools. The book will be of interest to postgraduate students and to researchers with an interest in plant nematology and/or plant pathology more generally. A series of introductory chapters provide a biological context for the detailed reviews of all areas of plant-nematode interactions that follow and ensure that the bulk of the book is accessible to the non-specialist. A final section aims to show how these fundamental studies have provided outputs of practical relevance.

Concepts and Techniques in Genomics and Proteomics

Author : N Saraswathy
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Concepts and techniques in genomics and proteomics covers the important concepts of high-throughput modern techniques used in the genomics and proteomics field. Each technique is explained with its underlying concepts, and simple line diagrams and flow charts are included to aid understanding and memory. A summary of key points precedes each chapter within the book, followed by detailed description in the subsections. Each subsection concludes with suggested relevant original references. Provides definitions for key concepts Case studies are included to illustrate ideas Important points to remember are noted

Plant Genome Analysis

Author : Peter M. Gresshoff
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Plant Genome Analysis presents outstanding analyses of technologies, as well as explanations of molecular technology as it pertains to agriculture. Advances in genome analysis, including DNA amplification (DAF and RAPD) markers, RFLPs, and microsatellites are reviewed by accomplished scientists, many of whom are the developers of the technique. Articles by patent lawyers experienced in plant biotechnology present the legal viewpoint. Chapters focus on special elements of genome analysis, such as the: use of antisense technology investigation of telomeres production of plant YACs importance of cell cycle genes in plants. Other chapters focus on specialized topics of genome analysis. These include a description of antisense technology in the study of photosynthesis and a comprehensive review of the characterization and isolation of plant telomere, including their use in varietal discrimination. A detailed anaysis of cytoplasmic male sterility in the french bean that focuses on the mitochondrial genome is described. The book provides a chapter on the production of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) carrying soybean DNA. Genes of the cell cycle in plants and their importance in developmental processes are presented, as well as detailed chapters on the molecular mapping of trees (apples and pines), and nodulation-related genes in legumes. A comprehensive index and a complete glossary are included.

The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals

Author : Peter John Ucko
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The domestication of plants and animals was one of the greatest steps forward taken by mankind. Although it was first achieved long ago, we still need to know what led to it and how, and even when, it took place. Only when we have this understanding will we be able to appreciate fully the important social and economic consequences of this step. Even more important, an understanding of this achievement is basic to any insight into modern man's relationship to his habitat. In the last decade or two a change in methods of investigating these events has taken place, due to the mutual realization by archaeologists and natural scientists that each held part of the key and neither alone had the whole. Inevitably, perhaps, the floodgate that was opened has resulted in a spate of new knowledge, which is scattered in the form of specialist reports in diverse journals. This volume results from presentations at the Institute of Archaeology, London University, discussing the domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. Workers in the archaeological, anthropological, and biological fields attempted to bridge the gap between their respective disciplines through personal contact and discussion. Modern techniques and the result of their application to the classical problems of domestication, selection, and spread of cereals and of cattle were discussed, but so were comparable problems in plants and animals not previously considered in this context. Although there were differing opinions on taxonomic classification, the editors have standardized and simplified the usage throughout this book. In particular, they have omitted references to authorities and adopted the binomial classification for both botanical and zoological names. They followed this procedure in all cases except where sub-specific differences are discussed and also standardized orthography of sites. Peter J. Ucko is professor emeritus of archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. His research interests include the history of archaeology, prehistoric art and images, and interpretation of archaeological collections and site displays. G. W. Dimbleby (1917-2000) was Chair of Human Environment at the Institute of Archaeology, London University. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Archeological Science. Throughout his life he served on important committees such as Science-based Archaeology Committee of the Science Research Council and the Committee for Rescue Archaeology of the Ancient Monuments Board of England.

Human Genome Research

Author : Mambillikalathil Govind Kumar Menon
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Contributed articles presented at an "International Symposium on Human Genome Studies: Emerging Ethical and Socio-Economical Issues" during May 22-25, 1998 in Goa.

From Biotechnology to Genomes

Author : Philippe Goujon
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Aimed at scientists and non-specialised readers alike, this book retraces the source of national and international biotechnology programmes by examining the origins of biotechnology and its political and economic interpretation by large nations. With a foreword by Andr(r) Goffeau, who initiated the European Yeast Genome Project, the book describes the achievements of the first genetic and physical maps, as well as the political and scientific genesis of the American Human Genome Project. Following these advances, the author discusses the European biotechnology strategy, the birth and implementation of European biotechnology programmes and the yeast genome project.

The Dynamic Bacterial Genome

Author : Peter Mullany
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This book is concerned with the mechanisms underlying recombination in bacterial DNA.

The Human Genome Mapping Project in the UK

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Modulation of Host Gene Expression and Innate Immunity by Viruses

Author : Peter Palese
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"Infection of a naive (non-immune) host with a virus elicits an immediate response which results in a cascade of changes in the host, including interferon response (innate immunity). The outcome of this interaction is influenced by the genes of the virus as well as the genes of the host. Interestingly, different viruses do it in different ways. not only is there a plethora of mechanisms used by the invading organisms, but the host has also evolved a great variety of redundant and robust countermeasures. Thi sinterplay of host and virus respresents one of the most significant frontiers in biology today. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved will arm us with better strategies to deal with viruses, including emerging pathogens and potential bioterrorism agents."--BACK COVER.

Antiparasitic and Antibacterial Drug Discovery

Author : Paul M. Selzer
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Mainly addressing parasitic diseases but also focusing on diseases caused by bacteria, this much-needed reference and handbook provides a unique insight into the approach adopted by commercial science towards infectious diseases, including the work of medicinal chemists. Many of the authors are scientists with hands-on experience of drug discovery units within the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, the text covers efforts towards drug development in infectious diseases from academic groups and non profit organizations.

Trading the Genome

Author : Bronwyn Parry
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In a groundbreaking work that draws on anthropology, history, philosophy, business and law, Parry links firsthand knowledge of the operation of the bioprospecting industry to a sophisticated analysis of broader economic, regulatory, and technological transformations to reveal the complex economic and political dynamics that underpin the new global trade in bio-information.