Search results for: glial-physiology-and-pathophysiology

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
File Size : 90.44 MB
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Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology provides a comprehensive, advanced text on the biology and pathology of glial cells. Coverae includes: the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous systems the cellular physiology of the different kinds of glial cells the mechanisms of intra- and inter-cellular signalling in glial networks the mechanisms of glial-neuronal communications the role of glial cells in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and development of nervous system the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuronal-glial interactions the role of glia in nervous system pathology, including pathology of glial cells and associated diseases - for example, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Alexander disease and Parkinson's Neuroglia oversee the birth and development of neurones, the establishment of interneuronal connections (the 'connectome'), the maintenance and removal of these inter-neuronal connections, writing of the nervous system components, adult neurogenesis, the energetics of nervous tissue, metabolism of neurotransmitters, regulation of ion composition of the interstitial space and many, many more homeostatic functions. This book primes the reader towards the notion that nervous tissue is not divided into more important and less important cells. The nervous tissue functions because of the coherent and concerted action of many different cell types, each contributing to an ultimate output. This reaches its zenith in humans, with the creation of thoughts, underlying acquisition of knowledge, its analysis and synthesis, and contemplating the Universe and our place in it. An up-to-date and fully referenced text on the most numerous cells in the human brain Detailed coverage of the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous system Describes the role og glial cells in neuropathology Focus boxes highlight key points and summarise important facts Companion website with downloadable figures and slides

Glial Neurobiology

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
File Size : 26.51 MB
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"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.

The Role of Glia in Neurotoxicity

Author : Michael Aschner
File Size : 74.48 MB
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Presenting the latest research in glial cell function gleaned from new techniques in imaging and molecular biology, The Role of Glia in Neurotoxicity, Second Edition covers multiple aspects of glial cells, including morphology, physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, pathology, and their involvement in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. The book is structured to examine the interactions between glial cells and neurons during development, adulthood, and senescence, followed by specific examples of directly mediated glial neurotoxicity. The book also covers miscellaneous topics in glial physiology/biochemistry such as signaling and edema. The book includes coverage of advances in our knowledge and understanding of glial physiology and biochemistry. Discover what's new in the Second Edition: Neuronal-glia metabolic interactions Neuronal-glia interactions (glutamate homeostasis) Zinc transporters in glia Energy deprivation/mitochondrial dysfunction - unique astrocyte susceptibilities Astrocytes and MPTP neurotoxicity Astroglia and food toxins Current understanding of the importance of glia has caused a boom in published information. Yet while many of the published textbooks are multifaceted and multidisciplinary, none includes the role of glia in neurotoxicity. Written by leaders in the field of glial research, this text fills this missing gap in the literature. Broader in scope than the first edition, including contributions from internationally known researchers, this is still the only book dedicated to exploring the role of glial cells in mediating neurotoxicology. Features Summarizes the latest research in glial cell function gleaned from new techniques in imaging and molecular biology Contains tables and figures that give you quick and easy access to precise data Includes a contemporary summary of literature that puts information useful for grant submissions at your fingertips

Neuroglia in Alzheimer s Disease

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
File Size : 24.53 MB
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In Neuroglia in Alzheimer's Disease, the authors provide a broad overview of glial physiology and pathophysiology, outline glial contribution to neurodegeneration and concentrate on the role of different classes of neuroglial cells in the progression and outcome of Alzheimer's disease. The authors discuss the critical vie of AD and argue for glial cells as new targets for therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. This book is valuable researchers, clinicians, postdocs, and graduate students in the fields of neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry. . The first comprehensive overview of the contribution of various types of glia into Alzheimer's Disease. . Provides a new concept of gliopathology that can influence understanding of the disease and the development of new therapeutic strategies . Written by an international team of leading researchers in the field of neuroglia

Astrocyte

Author : Maria Teresa Gentile
File Size : 20.24 MB
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A team of authors from prestigious academic schools contributed to draw up a project that would give a detailed account of astrocyte's morphology and physiology, examining thoroughly all the astrocyte's types; giving an accurate description of their morphology, location, function in the brain; and illustrating their physiology and pathology in terms of dealing with neurons through "gliotransmitters," ionic channels, and membrane receptors expression. This book gives an overview of the crucial role of astrocytes in the physiology of the CNS and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders suggesting that the shift from a neurocentric view to one that incorporates astrocytes in disease models for drug discovery is a critical step in renewing drug development strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Oligodendrocyte Physiology and Pathology Function

Author : Markus Kipp
File Size : 45.78 MB
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The adult vertebrate central nervous system mainly consists of neurons, astrocytes, microglia cells, and oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the CNS, are subjected to cell stress and subsequent death in a number of metabolic or inflammatory disorders, among which multiple sclerosis (MS) is included. This disease is associated with the development of large demyelinated plaques, oligodendrocyte destruction, and axonal degeneration, paralleled by the activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as the recruitment of peripheral immune cells to the site of tissue injury. Of note, viable oligodendrocytes and an intact myelin sheath are indispensable for neuronal health. For example, it has been shown that oligodendrocytes provide nutritional support to neurons, fast axonal transport depends on proper oligodendrocyte function, and mice deficient in mature myelin proteins eventually display severe neurodegeneration. This Special Issue contains a collection of highly relevant primary research articles as well as review articles focusing on the development, physiology, and pathology of the oligodendrocyte–axon–myelin unit.

Neuroglia Function and Pathology

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
File Size : 75.68 MB
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Neuroglia: Function and Pathology provides a broad overview of glial pathophysiology and their contribution to various neurological diseases. With a focus on the role of different classes of neuroglial cells in the progression and outcome of each neurological disorder both in the CNS and PNS, this book highlights the importance of glia in neuropathology and, at the same time, the potential of glial cells as therapeutic targets. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes play critical roles in the formation and removal of synapses, myelination, and have a primary role in the progression of neuropathologies, hence this is an interesting and timely resource. Provides the most comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date single volume on glia pathology Includes full color illustrations throughout Features helpful text boxes highlighting key summaries of sections Covers various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS and epilepsy, amongst others

Untangling the Role of Tau in Physiology and Pathology

Author : Jesus Avila
File Size : 25.8 MB
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This eBook is a collection of articles from a Frontiers Research Topic. Frontiers Research Topics are very popular trademarks of the Frontiers Journals Series: they are collections of at least ten articles, all centered on a particular subject. With their unique mix of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Frontiers Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author by contacting the Frontiers Editorial Office: frontiersin.org/about/contact.

Introduction to Neuroglia

Author : Alekseĭ Nestorovich Verkhratskiĭ
File Size : 81.25 MB
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This book is the introduction to a series of e-books dedicated to the physiology and pathophysiology of neuroglia. The topic of neuroglia is generally overlooked in neuroscience curricula across the world, the main attention being focused on the description of excitability of neurons and neuronal networks. The neuroglia, being electrically non-excitable, are universally regarded as supportive cells which do not contribute to information processing. This oversimplified view, however, ignores the tremendous importance of brain homeostasis, which is imperative for the ongoing activity of neuronal networks. It also ignores the truth that specialization of neurons and their ability for rapid propagation and multi-level integration of signals become possible only because of delegation of homeostatic abilities to neuroglia. Furthermore, glial cells contribute to information processing as they can modulate neuronal synaptic transmission. Finally, neuroglia provide the only system of brain defense and as such these cells are intimately involved in all types of neuropathologies, and contribute to both neuroprotection and regeneration of the nervous system. The e-books in this series provide a platform for in-depth learning of all aspects of neuroglial cells function in health and disease.

Modulating Glial Cells Phenotype New Findings and Therapies

Author : Alberto Javier Ramos
File Size : 77.15 MB
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This eBook is a collection of articles from a Frontiers Research Topic. Frontiers Research Topics are very popular trademarks of the Frontiers Journals Series: they are collections of at least ten articles, all centered on a particular subject. With their unique mix of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Frontiers Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author by contacting the Frontiers Editorial Office: frontiersin.org/about/contact.