Search results for: health-and-cognition-in-old-age

Health and Cognition in Old Age

Author : Anja K. Leist
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In recent years, the aim of research on aging has shifted from prolonging life to fostering healthy and cognitively robust old age. In order to improve the quality of life of older people, we need to better understand cognitive aging as well as bodily aging. Health and Cognition in Old Age assembles the cream of research across varied medical, mental health, and social disciplines, and demonstrates how this knowledge can lead to improved outcomes for older people. The first half of this expert volume discusses biomedical and life course factors in aging, particularly as they affect cognition and well-being in later life. From there, effective solutions are the focus: interventions and care programs to improve mental functioning and general quality of life, and current policy and practice ideas in promoting healthy, active, and cognitively robust aging. Together, these diverse chapters offer a multi-faceted approach to understanding and modifying what was formerly the inevitable course of growing old. A sampling of the coverage: How the aging process affects the immune system. Occupational gerontology – work-related determinants of old age health and functioning. Social, behavioral, and contextual influences on cognitive function and decline. Lifestyle factors in the prevention of dementia. Understanding long-term care outcomes: conventional and behavioral economics. Social capital, mental well-being, and loneliness in older people. For gerontologists, sociologists, social workers, health psychologists, and others working to improve older people’s lives, Health and Cognition in Old Age brings expertise, versatility, and confidence to the table.

Mood and Cognition in Old Age

Author : Lia Fernandes
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Improving psychological well-being and cognitive health is now listed as the priority on the healthy aging agenda. Depression and cognitive impairment are great challenges for the elderly population. There have been numerous studies on depression and cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the neural correlates of depression and cognitive impairment have not yet been elucidated. With the development of neuroscience and relevant technologies, studies on anatomical and functional neural networks, neurobiological mechanisms of mood and cognition in old age will provide more insight into the potential diagnosis, prevention and intervention in depression and cognitive impairment. For example, longitudinal neuroimaging studies depicting the trajectories of patterns of structural and functional brain networks of mild cognitive impairment may provide potential imaging markers for the onset of dementia. Population-based studies have addressed the potential interaction between mood and cognitive impairment in old age. However, there are few studies to explore the potential neural mechanism of the relationship between depression and cognitive impairment in old age. In all of this process the contribution of multiple biological events cannot be neglected, particularly the underlying influence of chronic diseases and concomitant polymedication as well as the geriatric conditions, like frailty, frequently present in this elderly population, which also compromise the cognitive function and mood determining depression and conducing to worse outcomes with more morbidity and mortality.

Cognitive Aging

Author : Institute of Medicine
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For most Americans, staying "mentally sharp" as they age is a very high priority. Declines in memory and decision-making abilities may trigger fears of Alzheimer's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases. However, cognitive aging is a natural process that can have both positive and negative effects on cognitive function in older adults - effects that vary widely among individuals. At this point in time, when the older population is rapidly growing in the United States and across the globe, it is important to examine what is known about cognitive aging and to identify and promote actions that individuals, organizations, communities, and society can take to help older adults maintain and improve their cognitive health. Cognitive Aging assesses the public health dimensions of cognitive aging with an emphasis on definitions and terminology, epidemiology and surveillance, prevention and intervention, education of health professionals, and public awareness and education. This report makes specific recommendations for individuals to reduce the risks of cognitive decline with aging. Aging is inevitable, but there are actions that can be taken by individuals, families, communities, and society that may help to prevent or ameliorate the impact of aging on the brain, understand more about its impact, and help older adults live more fully and independent lives. Cognitive aging is not just an individual or a family or a health care system challenge. It is an issue that affects the fabric of society and requires actions by many and varied stakeholders. Cognitive Aging offers clear steps that individuals, families, communities, health care providers and systems, financial organizations, community groups, public health agencies, and others can take to promote cognitive health and to help older adults live fuller and more independent lives. Ultimately, this report calls for a societal commitment to cognitive aging as a public health issue that requires prompt action across many sectors.

Handbook of Cognitive Aging

Author : Quentin Gariépy
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Ageing is the accumulation of changes in an organism or object over time. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. Some dimensions of ageing grow and expand over time, while others decline. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Research shows that even late in life potential exists for physical, mental, and social growth and development. Ageing is an important part of all human societies reflecting the biological changes that occur, but also reflecting cultural and societal conventions. More people are reaching older age today than ever before and the incidence of dementia is thus expected to rise. It is important to investigate the possible prevention of dementia and cognitive decline. This new book gathers the latest research from around the globe in this field of study and related topics such as cardiovascular disease and cognitive function, physical exercise and cognitive function in the elderly, the dementia diagnosis, the role of MRI in Alzheimer's disease, oestrogen decline effects on the mental health of ageing women and the relationship between dementia and depression.

New Directions in Aging Research

Author : Ruby R. Brougham
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One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is global ageing. A primary objective of this book is to review research that is at the forefront in providing information regarding the decline, maintenance, and improvements in health and cognition that are associated with age. Another objective is to provide information regarding pioneering methods to ameliorate age-related declines. It brings together scholars with a wide variety of expertise who present innovative ideas about lifestyle and brain health, quality of life issues, memory interventions, methodology for pain assessment, health communication, decision-making, future time perspective, and retirement goals. The reader will finish this book with a greater understanding of the problems and potential solutions for addressing the important problems of an ageing population. This timely book will make an important contribution to the current aging literature by offering new ideas to stimulate further research and application in understanding health, cognition, and ageing. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals who study or work in the fields of psychology, gerontology, social work, human development and health fields such as nursing, physical therapy, and occupational therapy.

AgeTech Cognitive Health and Dementia

Author : Andrew Sixsmith
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This book explores the ways in which AgeTech can contribute to healthy cognitive aging and support the independence of people with dementia. Technology can play a key role in supporting the health, independence, and well-being of older adults, particularly as a response to rapid worldwide population aging. AgeTech refers to the use of technologies, such as information and communication technologies (ICTs), robotics, mobile technologies, artificial intelligence, ambient systems, and pervasive computing to drive technology-based innovation to benefit older adults. AgeTech has the potential to provide new ways of meeting the growing demands on health and social care services to support people to stay healthy and active. As such, AgeTech represents an increasingly important market sector within world economies. The book also addresses some of the research, innovation, and policy challenges that need to be resolved if technology-based products and services are to fulfill their potential and deliver real-world impacts to improve the lives of older adults and their carers, thus promoting more inclusive communities for the benefit of all.

The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain

Author : Matthew Rizzo
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A thought-provoking treatise on understanding and treating the aging mind and brain This handbook recognizes the critical issues surrounding mind and brain health by tackling overarching and pragmatic needs so as to better understand these multifaceted issues. This includes summarizing and synthesizing critical evidence, approaches, and strategies from multidisciplinary research—all of which have advanced our understanding of the neural substrates of attention, perception, memory, language, decision-making, motor behavior, social cognition, emotion, and other mental functions. Written by a plethora of health experts from around the world, The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain offers in-depth contributions in 7 sections: Introduction; Methods of Assessment; Brain Functions and Behavior across the Lifespan; Cognition, Behavior and Disease; Optimizing Brain Function in Health and Disease; Forensics, Competence, Legal, Ethics and Policy Issues; and Conclusion and New Directions. Geared toward improving the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of many brain-based disorders that occur in older adults and that cause disability and death Seeks to advance the care of patients who have perceptual, cognitive, language, memory, emotional, and many other behavioral symptoms associated with these disorders Addresses principles and practice relevant to challenges posed by the US National Academy of Sciences and National Institute of Aging (NIA) Presents materials at a scientific level that is appropriate for a wide variety of providers The Wiley Handbook on the Aging Mind and Brain is an important text for neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, physiatrists, geriatricians, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and other primary caregivers who care for patients in routine and specialty practices as well as students, interns, residents, and fellows.

AgeTech Cognitive Health and Dementia

Author : Andrew Sixsmith
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This book explores the ways in which AgeTech can contribute to healthy cognitive aging and support the independence of people with dementia. Technology can play a key role in supporting the health, independence, and well-being of older adults, particularly as a response to rapid worldwide population aging. AgeTech refers to the use of technologies, such as information and communication technologies (ICTs), robotics, mobile technologies, artificial intelligence, ambient systems, and pervasive computing to drive technology-based innovation to benefit older adults. AgeTech has the potential to provide new ways of meeting the growing demands on health and social care services to support people to stay healthy and active. As such, AgeTech represents an increasingly important market sector within world economies. The book also addresses some of the research, innovation, and policy challenges that need to be resolved if technology-based products and services are to fulfill their potential and deliver real-world impacts to improve the lives of older adults and their carers, thus promoting more inclusive communities for the benefit of all.

Aging Technology and Health

Author : Richard Pak
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Aging, Health and Technology takes a problem-centered approach to examine how older adults use technology for health. It examines the many ways in which technology is being used by older adults, focusing on challenges, solutions and perspectives of the older user. Using aging-health technology as a lens, the book examines issues of technology adoption, basic human factors, cognitive aging, mental health, aging and usability, privacy, trust and automation. Each chapter takes a case study approach to summarize lessons learned from unique examples that can be applied to similar projects, while also providing general information about older adults and technology. Discusses human factors design challenges specific to older adults Covers the wide range of health-related uses for technology—from fitness to leading a more engaged life Utilizes a case study approach for practical application Envisions what the future will hold for technology and older adults Employs a roster of interdisciplinary contributors

Enhancing Cognitive Fitness in Adults

Author : PAULA HARTMAN-STEIN
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Late life is characterized by great diversity in memory and other cognitive functions. Although a substantial proportion of older adults suffer from Alzheimer’s disease or another form of dementia, a majority retain a high level of cognitive skills throughout the life span. Identifying factors that sustain and enhance cognitive well-being is a growing area of original and translational research. In 2009, there are as many as 5.2 million Americans living with Alzheimer’s disease, and that figure is expected to grow to as many as 16 million by 2050. One in six women and one in 10 men who live to be at least age 55 will develop Alzheimer’s disease in their remaining lifetime. Approximately 10 million of the 78 million baby boomers who were alive in 2008 can expect to develop Alzheimer’s disease. Seventy percent of people with Alzheimer’s disease live at home, cared for by family and friends. In 2008, 9.8 million family members, friends, and neighbors provided unpaid care for someone with Alzheimer’s disease or another form of dementia. The direct costs to Medicare and Medicaid for care of people with Alzheimer’s disease amount to more than $148 billion annually (from Alzheimer’s Association, 2008 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures). This book will highlight the research foundations behind brain fitness interventions as well as showcase innovative community-based programs to maintain and promote mental fitness and intervene with adults with cognitive impairment. The emphasis is on illustrating the nuts and bolts of setting up and utilizing cognitive health programs in the community, not just the laboratory.

Successful Cognitive and Emotional Aging

Author : Colin A. Depp
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The critical importance of brain health to the well-being of older adults is becoming increasingly clear. However, an important aspect that interests most people relates to what clinicians and their adult patients and family members can do to retain and even improve cognitive and emotional functioning as they age. Successful Cognitive and Emotional Aging thoroughly discusses the neuroscience of healthy aging and presents effective strategies for staying lively, engaged, and positive. The book is organized into three parts. The first one, focusing on behavioral and psychosocial aspects, strives to place cognitive aging in a broad context. With chapters that explore such topics as the meaning of wisdom, the role of spirituality in healthy aging, and what centenarians can teach us about cognition and emotion, this section sets the stage for a rich, robust, yet nuanced treatment of its subject. The second part addresses the biological aspects and presents the scientific foundations of cognitive aging, as well as reviews the research on the role of factors such as stress, resilience, and diet. Finally, the third section addresses prevention and intervention strategies in a practical, down-to-earth fashion, addressing questions such as "What environments encourage physical activity?" and "How can we promote resilience?" Several features of the book are especially noteworthy: The book bridges the gap between popular science for a lay audience and the heavily theoretical, academic approach of other books on the aging brain, making it suitable not only for clinicians but for their patients and family members as well. The fascinating story of an innovative intergenerational school makes the case for meaningful activity -- not just for the older participants but for the entire community -- and is suggestive of the plethora of possible programs that might prove effective at keeping the older population engaged and contributing. Results from a 70-year longitudinal study are extensively reviewed and identify the coping strategies that seem to bring about well-being in older age. The most promising strategies for successful aging, applicable to a large majority of the population, are summarized by the editors so that clinicians as well as consumers of healthcare may implement them as they see fit. As the baby boomers reach what used to be considered "old age," the demand for evidence-based strategies for retaining and improving cognition will only increase. Fortunately, as the editors note, it is never too early or too late to start working toward the goal of improving brain health.

Nurturing the Older Brain and Mind

Author : Pamela M. Greenwood
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Two noted researchers explain scientific evidence that shows why certain experiential and lifestyle factors may promote and maintain cognitive vitality in older adults. Although our physical abilities clearly decline as we age, cognitive decline in healthy old age is neither universal nor inevitable. In Nurturing the Older Brain, Pamela Greenwood and Raja Parasuraman show that scientific research does not support the popular notion of the inexorable and progressive effects of cognitive aging in all older adults. They report that many adults maintain a high level of cognitive function into old age and that certain experiential and lifestyle factors--including education, exercise, diet, and opportunities for new learning--contribute to the preservation of cognitive abilities. Many popular accounts draw similar conclusions and give similar lifestyle advice but lack supporting scientific evidence. Greenwood and Parasuraman offer a comprehensive review of research on cognitive and brain aging. They show that even the aged brain remains capable of plasticity--the ability to adapt to and benefit from experience--and they summarize evidence that brain plasticity is heightened by certain types of cognitive training, by aerobic exercise, and by certain diets. They also report on the somewhat controversial use of estrogen and cognition-enhancing drugs, on environmental adaptations (including "virtual assistants") that help older adults "age in place," and on genetic factors in cognitive aging. The past twenty years of research points to ways that older adults can lead rich and cognitively vital lives. As millions of baby boomers head toward old age, Greenwood and Parasuraman's accessible book could not be more timely.

The Effects of Metal Work Demands on Cognitive Aging and Dementia

Author : Jinshil Hyun
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As the population is rapidly aging, staying mentally sharp into old age is an increasingly important public health issue. A growing body of empirical research highlights the importance of engaging in mental activities for maintaining cognitive health in later life. Because a persons occupation is a major source of mental activities during a large segment of an individuals life, it is important to identify occupational characteristics that impact long-term cognitive health. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to examine the associations between mental work demands and late-life cognitive outcomes in both cognitively normal individuals and those with dementia. Using data from the longitudinal Einstein Aging Study, Aim 1 examined whether mental work demands predicted the likelihood and onset of incident dementia (N=496). To calculate dementia onset, we used three temporal anchors: birth, baseline assessment, and retirement. Results indicated that individuals with greater mental work demands showed a significantly lower likelihood of incident dementia. Further, work demands were associated with delayed onset of dementia (as indexed by time since retirement), even after controlling for education, genetic risk, and other covariates. Aim 2 examined whether mental work demands were associated with levels and rates of change in cognition among older adults without dementia (N=1,118). Cognitive change was represented using two time metrics (i.e., retirement, baseline) for aligning individual trajectories. In the time from retirement model, mental work demands were associated with higher levels of cognitive performance and faster rates of decline. Despite faster cognitive loss, the protective effect of mental work demands persisted for 24 years after retirement. The relationship between mental work demands and rate of cognitive change, however, was not significant in the time from baseline model. Overall, results from this dissertation are consistent with prior work indicating that greater mental work demands in midlife confer protective effects for late-life cognition. In addition, the seemingly paradoxical result that greater mental work demands predicted faster cognitive decline in later decades of healthy older adulthood is in line with the cognitive reserve hypothesis (Stern, 2002), such that protective factors for cognitive health are associated with delayed onset but more rapid cognitive decline afterwards. Public attention as well as individuals efforts should be directed to continued mental engagement through midlife into old age.

The Aging Mind

Author : National Research Council
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Possible new breakthroughs in understanding the aging mind that can be used to benefit older people are now emerging from research. This volume identifies the key scientific advances and the opportunities they bring. For example, science has learned that among older adults who do not suffer from Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias, cognitive decline may depend less on loss of brain cells than on changes in the health of neurons and neural networks. Research on the processes that maintain neural health shows promise of revealing new ways to promote cognitive functioning in older people. Research is also showing how cognitive functioning depends on the conjunction of biology and culture. The ways older people adapt to changes in their nervous systems, and perhaps the changes themselves, are shaped by past life experiences, present living situations, changing motives, cultural expectations, and emerging technology, as well as by their physical health status and sensory-motor capabilities. Improved understanding of how physical and contextual factors interact can help explain why some cognitive functions are impaired in aging while others are spared and why cognitive capability is impaired in some older adults and spared in others. On the basis of these exciting findings, the report makes specific recommends that the U.S. government support three major new initiatives as the next steps for research.

Healthy Aging An Issue of Clinics in Geriatric Medicine E Book

Author : Susan M. Friedman
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This issue of Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, guest edited by Dr. Susan Friedman, is devoted to Healthy Aging. Articles in this issue include: Healthy Aging Across the Stages of Old Age, How Geriatric Principles Inform Healthy Aging, Multimorbidity, Function and Cognition in Aging, Preserving Cognition, Preventing Dementia, Preserving Engagement, Nurturing Resilience, The Frailty Cycle: Reducing frailty to promote healthy aging, Addressing Obesity to Promote Healthy Aging, Lifestyle (Medicine) and Healthy Aging, Nutrition and Healthy Aging, Physical Activity and Healthy Aging, Mindfulness, Stress, and Aging, The Role of Prevention in Healthy Aging, Best Practices for Promoting Healthy Aging, Getting from Here to There: Motivational Interviewing and Other Techniques to Promote Healthy Aging, and more.

Growing Old with Two Languages

Author : Ellen Bialystok
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This collection brings together two areas of research that are currently receiving great attention in both scientific and public spheres: cognitive aging and bilingualism. With ongoing media focus on the aging population and the need for activities to forestall cognitive decline, experiences that appear effective in maintaining functioning are of great interest. One such experience is lifelong bilingualism. Moreover, research into the cognitive effects of bilingualism has increased dramatically in the past decade, making it an exciting area of study. This volume combines these issues and presents the most recent research and thinking into the effects of bilingualism on cognitive decline in aging. The contributors are all leading scholars in their field. The result is a state-of-the art collection on the effect of bilingualism on cognition in older populations for both healthy aging and aging with dementia. The papers will be of interest to researchers, students, and health professionals.

New Frontiers in Cognitive Aging

Author : Department of Psychology Roger Dixon
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This volume brings together leading experts from a range of fields studying cognitive aging, including neuroscience, pharmacology, health, genetics, sensory biology and epidemiology. Unlike other books in this area, this book is more about 'new frontiers' than past research and accomplishments.

Handbook of the Psychology of Aging

Author : K Warner Schaie
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The Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, Seventh Edition, provides a basic reference source on the behavioral processes of aging for researchers, graduate students, and professionals. It also provides perspectives on the behavioral science of aging for researchers and professionals from other disciplines. The book is organized into four parts. Part 1 reviews key methodological and analytical issues in aging research. It examines some of the major historical influences that might provide explanatory mechanisms for a better understanding of cohort and period differences in psychological aging processes. Part 2 includes chapters that discuss the basics and nuances of executive function; the history of the morphometric research on normal brain aging; and the neural changes that occur in the brain with aging. Part 3 deals with the social and health aspects of aging. It covers the beliefs that individuals have about how much they can control various outcomes in their life; the impact of stress on health and aging; and the interrelationships between health disparities, social class, and aging. Part 4 discusses the emotional aspects of aging; family caregiving; and mental disorders and legal capacities in older adults. Contains all the main areas of psychological gerontological research in one volume Entire section on neuroscience and aging Begins with a section on theory and methods Edited by one of the father of gerontology (Schaie) and contributors represent top scholars in gerontology

Impact of Health Conditions on Cognitive Change in Later Life

Author : Catharine Sparks
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Relatively few studies have considered how changes in health are associated with changes in cognition in aging populations. Even fewer have investigated the similarities and differences of the health-cognition link evidenced across independent longitudinal studies of aging that differ in country and birth cohort. The main objective of the current research is to evaluate aging-related cognitive change in the context of physical health conditions and to compare patterns and synthesize results across several longitudinal studies of aging. This cross-study evaluation is based on data from three longitudinal studies of aging: 1) the OCTO-Twin Study, a longitudinal investigation of same-sex twin pairs drawn from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry (N = 702; 67% female; mean age is 83.5), 2) the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a study of middle-aged and older adults in the U.S. (N = 21,364; 57% female; mean age is 65.8), and 3) the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA), a study of middle-aged and older adults in the U.K. (N = 11,397; 54% female; mean age is 65.3). Data were analyzed using latent growth curve (LGC) analysis to evaluate 1) the impact of diagnosed health conditions and 2) the additive impact of comorbidity on level and rate of change in distinct cognitive outcomes. Our findings indicate that particular health conditions significantly impact initial status and rate of change in cognition, but do so differently across longitudinal studies of aging. The argument is made that the inclusion of health in our predictive models is essential as we try to parse out the effects of pathological aging vs. normative age-related change in cognition. The results of this study show the importance of replication in longitudinal research and for contrasting patterns of effects across independent studies in order to build a cumulative basis for further understanding of the dynamics among aging, health, and cognition in populations that differ in cohort, culture, and country.

Understanding Well Being in the Oldest Old

Author : Leonard W. Poon
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The demographic and social structure of most industrialized and developing countries are changing rapidly as infant mortality is reduced and population life span has increased in dramatic ways. In particular, the oldest old (85+) population has grown and will continue to grow. This segment of the population tends to suffer physical and cognitive decline, and little information is available to describe how their positive and negative distal experiences, habits and intervening proximal environmental influences impact their well-being, and how social and health policies can help meet the unique challenges they face. Understanding Well-Being in the Oldest Old is the outcome of a four-day workshop attended by U.S. and Israeli scientists and funded by the U.S.-Israel Bi-National Science Foundation to examine both novel and traditional paradigms that could extend our knowledge and understanding of the well-being of the oldest old.