Search results for: introduction-to-logic-and-logical-discourse

Introduction to Logic and Logical Discourse

Author : Satya Sundar Sethy
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This book focuses on logic and logical language. It examines different types of words, terms and propositions in detail. While discussing the nature of propositions, it illustrates the procedures used to determine the truth and falsity of a proposition, and the validity and invalidity of an argument. In addition, the book provides a clear exposition of the pure and mixed form of syllogism with suitable examples. The book encompasses sentential logic, predicate logic, symbolic logic, induction and set theory topics. The book is designed to serve all those involved in teaching and learning courses on logic. It offers a valuable resource for students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and computer science disciplines. Given its scope, it is an essential read for everyone interested in logic, language, formulation of the hypotheses for the scientific enquiries and research studies, and judging valid and invalid arguments in the natural language discourse.

From Discourse to Logic

Author : Hans Kamp
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Preface This book is about semantics and logic. More specifically, it is about the semantics and logic of natural language; and, even more specifically than that, it is about a particular way of dealing with those subjects, known as Discourse Representation Theory, or DRT. DRT is an approach towards natural language semantics which, some thirteen years ago, arose out of attempts to deal with two distinct problems. The first of those was the semantic puzzle that had been brought to contempo rary attention by Geach's notorious "donkey sentences" - sentences like If Pedro owns some donkey, he beats it, in which the anaphoric connection we perceive between the indefinite noun phrase some donkey and the pronoun it may seem to conflict with the existential meaning of the word some. The second problem had to do with tense and aspect. Some languages, for instance French and the other Romance languages, have two morphologically distinct past tenses, a simple past (the French Passe Simple) and a continuous past (the French Imparfait). To articulate precisely what the difference between these tenses is has turned out to be surprisingly difficult.

An Introduction to Logic

Author : Peter Alexander
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Originally published in 1969. This book is for undergraduates whether specializing in philosophy or not. It assumes no previous knowledge of logic but aims to show how logical notions arise from, or are abstracted from, everyday discourse, whether technical or non-technical. It sets out a knowledge of principles and, while not historical, gives an account of the reasons for which modern systems have emerged from the traditional syllogistic logic, demonstrating how certain central ideas have developed. The text explains the connections between everyday reasoning and formal logic and works up to a brief sketch of systems of propositional calculus and predicate-calculus, using both the axiomatic method and the method of natural deduction. It provides a self-contained introduction but for those who intend to study the subject further it contains many suggestions and a sound basis for more advanced study.

Introduction to Logic and Logical Discourse

Author : Satya Sundar Sethy
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Introduction to Logical Theory Routledge Revivals

Author : P. F. Strawson
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First published in 1952, professor Strawson’s highly influential Introduction to Logical Theory provides a detailed examination of the relationship between the behaviour of words in common language and the behaviour of symbols in a logical system. He seeks to explain both the exact nature of the discipline known as Formal Logic, and also to reveal something of the intricate logical structure of ordinary unformalised discourse.

Psychology Reasoning

Author : Source Wikia
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This book consists of articles from Wikia or other free sources online. Pages: 152. Chapters: Inductive deductive reasoning, Logic, Logical fallacies, Inference, Transitive inference, Abductive reasoning, Abductive validation, Analogy, Analytic philosophy, Argument, Argumentation theory, Arguments, Argument map, Assumption, Axioms, A priori and a posteriori, Boolean logic, Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography, Circular definition, Common sense, Comprehension, Concepts, Connotation, Connotations, Contraposition, Credibility, Critical thinking, Deductive reasoning, Defeasible reasoning, Degrees of truth, Domain of discourse, Epicureanism, Ethic of reciprocity, Existential graphs, Explanation, Fallacies of definition, First-order logic, First principles, Formal fallacy, Forward chaining, Generalization, Hypostatic abstraction, Induction, Inductive deductive reasoning, Inductive reasoning, Inference, Informal fallacy, Informal logic, Inquiry, Intension, Introduction to Logic, Is logic empirical?, Logical argument, Logical reasoning, Logic, Munchhausen Trilemma, Material fallacy, Minimal negation operator, Modal logic, Natural deduction, Objectivity, Paradox, Perceptual paradox, Pragmatic maxim, Pragmatic theory of truth, Premises, Premise, Primitive notion, Principle of Bivalence, Principle of distributivity, Proposition, Quantum logic, Reason, Redundancy, Retroduction, Retroductive reasoning, Soundness, Statistical syllogisms, Syllogistic reasoning, Tacit assumption, Testability, Train of thought, Appeal to authority, Association fallacy, Burden of proof, Confirmation bias, Conjunction fallacy, Correlation implies causation, Ecological fallacy, False dilemma, Gambler's fallacy, Greedy reductionism, Inconsistent triad, Informal fallacy, Logical fallacy, Naturalistic fallacy, Pathetic fallacy, Regression fallacy, Reification, Spurious relationship, Sunk costs, Appraisal theory, Arguments, Backward chaining, Dialectics, Inductive reasoning aptitude, Peter Cathcart...

Logic For Dummies

Author : Mark Zegarelli
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Logic concepts are more mainstream than you may realize. There’s logic every place you look and in almost everything you do, from deciding which shirt to buy to asking your boss for a raise, and even to watching television, where themes of such shows as CSI and Numbers incorporate a variety of logistical studies. Logic For Dummies explains a vast array of logical concepts and processes in easy-to-understand language that make everything clear to you, whether you’re a college student of a student of life. You’ll find out about: Formal Logic Syllogisms Constructing proofs and refutations Propositional and predicate logic Modal and fuzzy logic Symbolic logic Deductive and inductive reasoning Logic For Dummies tracks an introductory logic course at the college level. Concrete, real-world examples help you understand each concept you encounter, while fully worked out proofs and fun logic problems encourage you students to apply what you’ve learned.

Modern Deductive Logic

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An Introduction to Symbolic Logic

Author : Langer
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Famous classic has introduced countless readers to symbolic logic with its thorough and precise exposition. Starts with simple symbols and conventions and concludes with the Boole-Schroeder and Russell-Whitehead systems. No special knowledge of mathematics necessary. "One of the clearest and simplest introductions to a subject which is very much alive." — Mathematics Gazette.

The Logic Manual

Author : Volker Halbach
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The Logic Manual is the ideal introduction to logic for beginning philosophy students. It offers a concise but complete introductory course, giving a firm grounding in the logic that is needed to study contemporary philosophy. Exercises, examples, and sample examination papers are provided on an accompanying website.

Logical Thinking

Author : Richard A. Wright
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Introduction To Mathematical Logic Extended Edition

Author : Michal Walicki
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This is a systematic and well-paced introduction to mathematical logic. Excellent as a course text, the book presupposes only elementary background and can be used also for self-study by more ambitious students.Starting with the basics of set theory, induction and computability, it covers propositional and first order logic — their syntax, reasoning systems and semantics. Soundness and completeness results for Hilbert's and Gentzen's systems are presented, along with simple decidability arguments. The general applicability of various concepts and techniques is demonstrated by highlighting their consistent reuse in different contexts.Unlike in most comparable texts, presentation of syntactic reasoning systems precedes the semantic explanations. The simplicity of syntactic constructions and rules — of a high, though often neglected, pedagogical value — aids students in approaching more complex semantic issues. This order of presentation also brings forth the relative independence of syntax from the semantics, helping to appreciate the importance of the purely symbolic systems, like those underlying computers.An overview of the history of logic precedes the main text, while informal analogies precede introduction of most central concepts. These informal aspects are kept clearly apart from the technical ones. Together, they form a unique text which may be appreciated equally by lecturers and students occupied with mathematical precision, as well as those interested in the relations of logical formalisms to the problems of computability and the philosophy of logic.This revised edition contains also, besides many new exercises, a new chapter on semantic paradoxes. An equivalence of logical and graphical representations allows us to see vicious circularity as the odd cycles in the graphical representation and can be used as a simple tool for diagnosing paradoxes in natural discourse.

Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory

Author : Frans H. van Eemeren
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Argumentation theory is a distinctly multidisciplinary field of inquiry. It draws its data, assumptions, and methods from disciplines as disparate as formal logic and discourse analysis, linguistics and forensic science, philosophy and psychology, political science and education, sociology and law, and rhetoric and artificial intelligence. This presents the growing group of interested scholars and students with a problem of access, since it is even for those active in the field not common to have acquired a familiarity with relevant aspects of each discipline that enters into this multidisciplinary matrix. This book offers its readers a unique comprehensive survey of the various theoretical contributions which have been made to the study of argumentation. It discusses the historical works that provide the background to the field and all major approaches and trends in contemporary research. Argument has been the subject of systematic inquiry for twenty-five hundred years. It has been graced with theories, such as formal logic or the legal theory of evidence, that have acquired a more or less settled provenance with regard to specific issues. But there has been nothing to date that qualifies as a unified general theory of argumentation, in all its richness and complexity. This being so, the argumentation theorist must have access to materials and methods that lie beyond his or her "home" subject. It is precisely on this account that this volume is offered to all the constituent research communities and their students. Apart from the historical sections, each chapter provides an economical introduction to the problems and methods that characterize a given part of the contemporary research program. Because the chapters are self-contained, they can be consulted in the order of a reader's interests or research requirements. But there is value in reading the work in its entirety. Jointly authored by the very people whose research has done much to define the current state of argumentation theory and to point the way toward more general and unified future treatments, this book is an impressively authoritative contribution to the field.

The Duodoxy

Author : Cometan
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The Duodoxy is a 370,000 word long philosophical disquisition and the second of twelve disquisitions forming The Omnidoxy solely authored by the mononymous philosopher and founder of Astronism, Cometan. The Duodoxy comprises of one hundred and forty different discourses and introduces a plethora of new words, concepts, disciplines of study, and belief orientations. The topics addressed in these discourses differ vastly from the introduction of the Millettic approach to logic, the different forms and structures of philosophies, comparisons of philosophies to religions and ideologies, as well as outlining the theoretical foundations of how Astronism is to be disseminated globally which is addressed in the discourse focusing on the nature of promulgation and its management. The Duodoxy is also colloquially referred to as The Everything Disquisition due to the fact that it encompasses such a wide range of branches of philosophy, the most prominent one of which of course remains logic, upon which all of the ideas and theories presented in The Duodoxy are predicated. Additionally, The Duodoxy is said to provide the philosophy of Astronism with its ornamentation for The Duodoxy comprises of such a wide range of topics that without its presence, Astronism would not have developed as it has to become a philosophy with its own distinct physical and conceptual features and beliefs. At its heart, The Duodoxy is the introducer and outliner of Millettarian/Millettic/Astronic logic and under this auspice, Cometan has formulated, with the use of a new philosophical language, a new logical approach to understanding The Cosmos from the perspective of humanity as a whole as well as from our own personal individual perspectives.

Introduction to Logic

Author : Irving M. Copi
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For more than six decades, and for thousands of students, Introduction to Logic has been the gold standard in introductory logic texts. In this fifteenth edition, Carl Cohen and Victor Rodych update Irving M. Copi’s classic text, improving on its many strengths and introducing new and helpful material that will greatly assist both students and instructors. In particular, chapters 1, 8, and 9 have been greatly enhanced without disturbing the book’s clear and gradual pedagogical approach. Specifically: Chapter 1 now uses a simpler and better definition of "deductive validity," which enhances the rest of the book (especially chapters 1 and 8-10, and their new components). Chapter 8 now has: Simpler definitions of "simple statement" and "compound statement" More and more detailed examples of the Complete Truth-Table Method. Chapter 9 now has: A detailed, step-by-step account of the Shorter Truth-Table Method (with detailed step-by-step examples for conclusions of different types) A more complete and detailed account of Indirect Proof A detailed justification for Indirect Proof treating each of the three distinct ways in which an argument can be valid A new section on Conditional Proof, which complements the 19 Rules of Inference and Indirect Proof Explications of proofs of tautologies using both Indirect Proof and Conditional Proof A new section at the end of the chapter explaining the important difference between sound and demonstrative arguments. The Appendices now include: A new appendix on making the Shorter Truth-Table Technique (STTT) more efficient by selecting the most efficient sequence of STTT steps A new appendix on Step 1 calculations for multiple-line shorter truth tables A new appendix on unforced truth-value assignments, invalid arguments, and Maxims III-V. In addition, a Companion Website will offer: for Students: A Proof Checker Complete Truth Table Exercises Shorter Truth-Table Exercises A Truth-Table Video Venn Diagram Testing of Syllogisms Hundreds of True/False and Multiple Choice Questions for Instructors: An Instructor’s Manual A Solutions Manual www.routledge.com/cw/9781138500860

Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Author : Dov M. Gabbay
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suchquestionsforcenturies(unrestrictedbythecapabilitiesofanyhard­ ware). Theprinciplesgoverningtheinteractionofseveralprocesses,forexample, areabstractansimilartoprinciplesgoverningthecooperationoftwolarge organisation.Adetailedrulebasedeffectivebutrigidbureaucracyisvery muchsimilartoacomplexcomputerprogramhandlingandmanipulating data. Myguessisthattheprinciplesunderlyingoneareverymuchthe sameasthoseunderlyingtheother. Ibelievethedayisnotfarawayinthefuturewhenthecomputerscientist willwakeuponemorningwiththerealisationthatheisactuallyakindof formalphilosopher! TheprojectednumberofvolumesforthisHandbookisabout18.The subjecthasevolvedanditsareashavebecomeinterrelatedtosuchanextent thatitnolongermakessensetodedicatevolumestotopics.However,the volumesdofollowsomenaturalgroupingsofchapters. Iwouldliketothankourauthorsarereadersfortheircontributionsand theircommitmentinmakingthisHandbookasuccess. Thanksalsoto ourpublicationadministratorMrsJ.Spurrforherusualdedicationand excellenceandtoKluwerAcademicPublishersfortheircontinuingsupport fortheHandbook. DovGabbay King'sCollegeLondon x Logic II IT Natural Program Artificialin­ Logic p- language controlspec­ telligence gramming processing ification, verification, concurrency Temporal Expressive Expressive Planning. Extension of logic poweroftense power for re­ Time depen­ Horn clause operators. currentevents. dent data. with time Temporal Specification Eventcalculus. capability. indices. Sepa­ of tempo- Persistence Eventcalculus. rationofpast ral control. throughtime­ Temporallogic fromfuture Decisionprob­ the Frame programming. Problem.Tem­ lems. Model checking. poral query language. temporal transactions. Modal logic. generalised Actionlogic Beliefrevision. Negation by Multi-modal quantifiers Inferential failure and logics databases modality Algorithmic Discourse rep­ New logics. Generaltheory Proceduralap­ proof resentation. Generic theo­ of reasoning. proachtologic Direct com- remprovers Non-monotonic putation on systems linguisticinput Non­ Resolving Loopchecking. Intrinsiclogical Negation by monotonic ambigui- Non-monotonic discipline for failure.Deduc­ reasoning ties. Machine decisionsabout AI. Evolving tivedatabases translation. loops. Faults and com­ Document insystems. municating classification. databases Relevance theory Probabilistic logicalanalysis Realtimesys­ Expert sys­ Semantics for and fuzzy oflanguage tems tems.Machine logicprograms logic learning Intuitionistic Quantifiers in Constructive Intuitionistic Horn clause logic logic reasoning and logicisabetter logic is really proof theory logical basis intuitionistic.

Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Author : Dov M. Gabbay
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The Handbook of Philosophical Logic is a unique systematic survey of the central areas of philosophical logic. Divided into four volumes, each devoted to a major sub-field within the disciplines, it is expected that the Handbook will have considerable influence in the field for many years to come. Written by world authorities in philosophical logic, the work reflects careful and fruitful collaboration by the authors at every stage of the project. This has ensured a comprehensive and definitive set of articles which will be of inestimable value to general philosophers, linguists, logicians, mathematicians and computer scientists. Volume I: Elements of Classical Logic, deals with the background to what has come to be considered the standard formulation of predicate logic - both as far as its semantics and proof theory are concerned. The central chapter on predicate logic is followed by chapters outlining various alternative, but essentially equivalent ways of constructing the semantics for first-order logic as well as its proof theory. In addition, this volume contains a discussion of higher-order extensions of first-order logic and a compendium of the algorithmic and decision-theoretic prerequisites in the study of logical systems. Volume II: Extensions of Classical Logic, surveys the most significant `intensional' extensions of predicate logic and their applications to various philosophical fields of inquiry. The twelve chapters in this volume together provide a succinct introduction to a variety of intensional frameworks, a discussion of the most well-known logical systems, as well as an overview of major applications and of the open problems in the respective fields. Volume III: Alternatives to Classical Logic, consists of a series of surveys of some of the alternatives to the basic assumptions of classical logic. These include many-valued logic, partial logic, free logic, relevance and entailment logics, dialogue logic, quantum logic, and intuitionism. Volume IV: Topics in the Philosophy of Language, presents a panorama of the applications of logical tools and methods in the formal analysis of natural language. Since a number of developments in philosophical logic were originally stimulated by concern arising in the semantic analysis of natural language discourse, the chapters in this volume provide some criteria of evaluation of the applications of work in philosophical logic. In revealing both the adequacies and inadequacies of logical investigations in the semantic structures of natural discourse, these chapters also point the way to future developments in philosophical logic in general and thus close again the circle of inquiry relating logic and language.

An Introduction to Logic

Author : David Mitchell
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Originally published in 1967. The common aim of all logical enquiry is to discover and analyse correctly the forms of valid argument. In this book concise expositions of traditional, Aristotelian logic and of modern systems of propositional and predicative logic show how far that aim has been achieved.

Reference to Abstract Objects in Discourse

Author : Nicholas Asher
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Reference to Abstract Objects in Discourse presents a novel framework and analysis of the ways we refer to abstract objects in natural language discourse. The book begins with a typology of abstract objects and related entities like eventualities. After an introduction to `bottom up, compositional' discourse representation theory (DRT) and to previous work on abstract objects in DRT (notably work on the semantics of the attitudes), the book turns to a semantic analysis of eventuality and abstract object denoting nominals in English. The book then substantially revises and extends the dynamic semantic framework of DRT to develop an analysis of anaphoric reference to abstract objects and eventualities that exploits discourse structure and the discourse relations that obtain between elements of the structure. A dynamic, semantically based theory of discourse structure (SDRT) is proposed, along with many illustrative examples. Two further chapters then provide the analysis of anaphoric reference to propositions VP ellipsis. The abstract entity anaphoric antecedents are elements of the discourse structures that SDRT develops. The final chapter discusses some logical and philosophical difficulties for a semantic analysis of reference to abstract objects. For semanticists, philosophers of language, computer scientists interested in natural language applications and discourse, philosophical logicians, graduate students in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science and artificial intelligence.

Introduction to Logic

Author : Howard Pospesel
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Designed to make logic interesting and accessible -- without sacrificing content or rigor -- this classic introduction to contemporary propositional logic explains the symbolization of English sentences and develops formal-proof, truth-table, and truth-tree techniques for evaluating arguments. Organizes content around natural-deduction formal-proof procedures, truth tables, and truth trees. Also presents logical statement connectives gradually, one per chapter, and finally, increases readers' awareness of the arguments they read and hear every day by providing examples of actual arguments to which they can readily relate.