Search results for: manned-laboratories-in-space

Manned Laboratories in Space

Author : Siegfried Fred Singer
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Manned Laboratories in Space

Author : S.F. Singer
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The publication of this book is extremely timely, for the next major advances in manned space flight after Project Apollo will most likely be made in earth orbital operations. Manned exploration of the moon will certainly continue after the initial landing, but it will be performed essentially with the Saturn V launch vehicles and Apollo spacecraft developed in Apollo, especially in the early phases. Modifications to this basic hardware will increase operating capabilities to permit extensive lunar explo ration during prolonged stay times by the astronauts on the moon's surface. Manned orbital space stations have been studied for years, and NASA is already well along in development of its first attempt to provide more spacious accommo dations for astronaut-scientists in its Saturn Workshop program. While the Workshop is certainly not the ultimate space station of which our technology is capable, it is a workable, poor man's approach to the immediate need for using and expanding our present manned space flight capability without a de trimentalloss of momentum. The approach of converting a Saturn rocket stage into a manned laboratory and observatory in space is an improvisation that matches the use of the jerry-built Jupiter C back in 1958 to launch Explorer I. Let's hope that it can get the job done just as effectively.

The Story of Manned Space Stations

Author : Philip Baker
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This book charts the history of manned space stations in a logical, chronological order. It tells the story of the two major space powers starting out on their very separate programs, but slowly coming together. It describes rarely mentioned development programs, most of which never flew, including the US Manned Orbiting Laboratory, the Soviet Almaz station, and the Soviet Polyus battlestation. The Mir space station was one of the greatest human achievements in modern history, and a thorough telling of its story is essential to this book. This book is the first of its kind to tell the whole story of the manned space stations from the USA and Russia.

Manned Laboratories in Space

Author : Fred S. Singer
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Manned Laboratories in Space

Author : S.F. Singer
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Manned Laboratories in Space

Author : International Academy of Astronautics
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Manned Laboratories in Space Second International Orbital Laboratory Symposion

Author : Siegfried Fred Singer
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Manned Spacecraft Technologies

Author : Hong Yang
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Spies in Space

Author : U. S. Military
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This report was released by the NRO in May 2019. Between 1965 and 1969, quietly and without fanfare, 17 non-NASA individuals were astronaut-trained in order to meet the reconnaissance needs of the United States. They came from across the military services. Participants in the Manned Orbiting Laboratory program trained tirelessly and worked relentlessly because they believed they could contribute something unique to U.S. reconnaissance efforts and because they all shared a dream of flying in space. The purpose of this book is to offer a first-hand account of the MOL program for the first time. Shrouded in secrecy, the MOL program was declassified by the National Reconnaissance Office in 2015. This is the first opportunity many participants had to share their experiences with anyone outside their small cadres. The bulk of the book is written in their words, taken directly from transcripts of oral history interviews conducted over the last five years with program participants, as well as official documents and transcripts written by the officers who participated in and managed the programs.This compilation includes a reproduction of the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community.Although the US Air Force announced the MOL project, they did not disclose the primary purpose of the program-to serve as a manned reconnaissance platform in space. Instead, the Air Force disclosed that the platform would be used for space experiments. During the early planning stages of the MOL program, the US Air Force sought a compelling reason for developing the program given NASA's mandate for manned space flight. The newly formed National Reconnaissance Office provided the most compelling reason for a military manned space program, putting a high resolution telescope into space to observe the activities of the Soviet Union and other US adversaries. At the time MOL was under development, the United States had already demonstrated that imagery and signals intelligence from space satellites provided compelling insight to US leaders, including the president. The limitations, especially of photoreconnaissance satellites, included timeliness of the intelligence and capture of the intelligence in optimal weather conditions. Photoreconnaissance satellites captured images on film that took days to weeks to be deorbited, processed, analyzed, and made available to senior US leadership. Often the imagery was of limited value because of persistent cloud cover over areas of interest to the US. A manned imagery collection system in space seemed an elegant solution for overcoming these limitations. In theory, national reconnaissance astronauts could spot targets of interest, especially in a crisis, and image on orbits where those areas of interest were free of cloud cover. The astronauts could then develop and provide a preliminary readout of conditions on the ground in a crisis situation. If successful, the MOL program would provide intelligence information that would otherwise not be available for critical US decision-making.Although the MOL program was cancelled, its legacy continued not only through the contributions to US space and defense programs by the astronauts who trained for the program, but also the technological development from the program. The technology investments in MOL were transferred to NASA for its own manned laboratory program that launched in the 1970s. The NRO also directly benefited in investments in both launch and reconnaissance collection systems that would mature for use in other NRO programs.

Space Travel

Author : Giles Sparrow
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From the shocking launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik and the subsequent acceleration of the American space program to the first manned space flights, the moon landings, and the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, the history of space travel is full of fascinating stories, technological marvels, hair-raising and death-defying feats of courage, and an inspiring spirit of both adventure and discovery. This is all brought into sharp focus in spreads that are bursting with color, fascinating facts, and stunning imagery. Also examined is the future of space travel, including space tourism, manned missions to Mars, and intergalactic manned exploration of deep space.

NASA SP

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Wernher Von Braun s 1969 Manned Mars Mission Plans After Apollo and the Boeing 1968 Integrated Manned Interplanetary Nuclear Spacecraft Concept Definition Study

Author : World Spaceflight News
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With the success of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon, Wernher von Braun presented an ambitious plan for manned missions to Mars as soon as the 1980s to the Space Task Group for consideration by President Richard Nixon as the next step in America's space program. Nixon rejected the plan, and the goal of humans on Mars remains unfulfilled. Here are the technical details of his incredible nuclear rocket powered proposal, which was based on studies by Boeing in 1968. Contents: Boeing 1968 Study Volume 1 * Boeing 1968 Study Volume 2 * 1969 von Braun Manned Mars Mission Proposal * von Braun's Integrated Space Program, 1970-1990. In his presentation, von Braun wrote: With the recent accomplishment of the manned lunar landing, the next frontier is manned exploration of the planets. Perhaps the most significant scientific question is the possibility of extraterrestrial life in our solar system. Manned planetary flight provides the opportunity to resolve this universal question thus capturing international interest and cooperation. The information presented here describes a method of landing men on the planet Mars in 1982. The scientific goals of the mission are described and the key decision dates are identified. The 1981 manned Mars mission (1982 landing on Mars) is shown as an integral part of the total space program for the next two decades. The systems and experience resulting from the Apollo program and the missions proposed for the 1970's provide the technical and programmatic foundation for this undertaking. A 1982 manned Mars landing is a logical focus for the programs of the next decade. Although the undertaking of this mission will be a great national challenge, it represents no greater challenge than the commitment made in 1961 to land a man on the moon. Several different modes are possible for accomplishing Mars landing missions, each with its peculiar advantages and disadvantages. The typical Mars Landing Mission begins with the boost of the planetary vehicle elements into Earth orbit utilizing the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. Following assembly of the complete planetary vehicle in Earth orbit, the Earth departure phase of the mission is initiated. The Mars vehicle then begins a 270-day journey to Mars. This is by no means an idle phase of the mission. In addition to observations of Mars, many other experiments and measurements will be made on both the Earth-to-Mars and Mars-to-Earth legs of the trip that are of prime scientific importance. The spacecraft represents a manned laboratory in space, free of the disturbing influences of the Earth. The fact that there will be two observation points, Earth and the spacecraft, permits several possible experiments regarding the temporal and spatial features of the interplanetary environment. In addition, the spacecraft can be used to supplement and extend numerous observations conducted from Earth orbital space stations, particularly in the field of astronomy. It is possible, for example, that as yet unidentified comets might be observed for the first time.

The Manned Space laboratories Control Center MSCC

Author : H. Brogl
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Biomedical Research and Computer Application in Manned Space Flight

Author : United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Technology Utilization Office
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"Technology Utilization Program designed to transfer technological developments that may have useful commereial applications. From NASA laboratories and contractors, aeronautics and space-related technology is gathered and evaluated. Items which have potential industrial use are made generally available. This survey of computer uses in the field of medicine is one of a series of NASA publications that presents information of direct or indirect interest to the non-aerospace community. ... This report summarizes the areas of medicine in which computers can be employed and examines in detail several cases where computers have been applied in connection with the medical aspects of NASA's manned space flight program. Treated are such problems as those of automated medical data storage and retrieval systems, continuous monitoring and interpretation of electrocardiograms, and computer-aided medical diagnosis. The approach is cautious throughout, with the emphasis almost constantly on ways to permit the computer to perform various clerical functions while leaving critical decisions to a human monitor."--Foreword.

Manned Space Flight Meeting

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To Create Space on Earth

Author : Lori C.. Walters
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Few undertakings in the history of humanity can compare to the great technological achievement known as Project Apollo. Among those who witnessed Armstrong#s flickering television image were thousands of people who had directly contributed to this historic moment. Amongst those in this vast anonymous cadre were the personnel of the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. SESL houses two large thermal-vacuum chambers with solar simulation capabilities. At a time when NASA engineers had a limited understanding of the effects of extremes of space on hardware and crews, SESL was designed to literally create the conditions of space on Earth. With interior dimensions of 90 feet in height and a 55-foot diameter, Chamber A dwarfed the Apollo command/service module (CSM) it was constructed to test. The chamber#s vacuum pumping capacity of 1 x 10(exp -6) torr can simulate an altitude greater than 130 miles above the Earth. A "lunar plane" capable of rotating a 150,000-pound test vehicle 180 deg replicates the revolution of a craft in space. To reproduce the temperature extremes of space, interior chamber walls cool to -280F as two banks of carbon arc modules simulate the unfiltered solar light/heat of the Sun. With capabilities similar to that of Chamber A, early Chamber B tests included the Gemini modular maneuvering unit, Apollo EVA mobility unit and the lunar module. Since Gemini astronaut Charles Bassett first ventured into the chamber in 1966, Chamber B has assisted astronauts in testing hardware and preparing them for work in the harsh extremes of space.Walters, Lori C.Johnson Space CenterCARBON ARCS; COMMAND SERVICE MODULES; EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY; FLICKER; LUNAR MODULE; ROTATION; SOLAR SIMULATION; SPACE ENVIRONMENT SIMULATION; VACUUM CHAMBERS; ASTRONAUTS; ENGINEERS; HOUSTON (TX); MANEUVERS; MANNED SPACECRAFT; MOBILITY; PERSONNEL; TELEVISION SYSTEMS

40 KWe THERMIONIC POWER SYSTEM FOR A MANNED SPACE LABORATORY

Author :
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Manned Space Laboratory Conference Los Angeles California May 2 1963

Author : American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
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Behavioral Research with Animals in a Manned Space Laboratory

Author : Herbert H. REYNOLDS
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This paper suggests animal behavioral research during prolonged weightlessness. The research suggested is justified on the basis of the short gestation period and rapid maturation of small animals, the number of subjects which may be studied, the controls which can be achieved, and the resultant increase in reliability of findings. (Author).

Evaluation of Manned Orbiting Laboratory Design Definition Pressure Garments

Author : J. Donald Bowen
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