Search results for: neurohumoral-regulation-of-coronary-flow

Neurohumoral Regulation of Coronary Flow

Author : W. H. (Wiek) van Gilst
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During the last decade we have witnessed a rapid expansion of our knowledge of the role of the endothelium in the control of vascular tone and hemostasis. In paricular, developments in molecular biology have enabled us to understand its physiology in greater detail. Furthermore, it is now clear that dysfunction of the endothelium contributes to various cardiovascular diseases. This is especially true for the coronary vascular bed. Development of atherosclerosis, disturbed vasomotor tone in stable ischemic syndromes, and the interaction of thrombocytes with the endothelium in acute ischemic syndrome are all consequences of endothelium dysfunction. Also, secondary changes in endothelial function have been described, for instance in chronic heart failure. This monograph reviews the present knowledge of the role of the endothelium in the control of coronary flow. The authors lead the reader through this topic starting at the basic physiology of endothelial function and the principles of coronary flow regulation. Next, the use of modern clinical techniques to evaluate endothelial function such as positron emission tomography and angioscopy are discussed. Subsequently, several pathophysiological processes and the role of endothelium are addressed. Finally, the interaction of various presently used cardiovascular drugs with the endothelium is indicated. It is the combination of basic sciences with clinical observations in this book which may be appreciated by a large number of scientists and physicians active in the field of cardiovascular disease. It is also this combination of different disciplines which will determine future developments and new avenues in pharmacotherapy involving the endothelium.

Coronary Circulation

Author : Johnathan D. Tune
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The coronary circulation is unique in that it is responsible for maintaining adequate oxygen and substrate delivery to the organ that generates the pressure needed to drive blood throughout the entire circulatory system. In the simplest terms, coronary blood flow is directly proportional to the arterial pressure gradient across the coronary vasculature and inversely proportional to coronary vascular resistance. However, myocardial perfusion is collectively regulated by a complex variety of mechanisms which include: (1) extravascular compressive forces; (2) diastolic time fraction; (3) coronary perfusion pressure; (4) myocardial metabolism (local metabolic factors); (5) endothelial-derived substances; (6) neuro-humoral influences; and (7) arterial oxygen tension and content. This book considers each of these determinants with particular emphasis on the functional interaction between the physical and biological determinants of myocardial perfusion. Pathophysiologic aspects of coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease states are also considered. Table of Contents: Abbreviations / Acknowledgments / Introduction / Basic Coronary Anatomy / Myocardial-Coronary Interaction / Arterial Pressure and Autoregulation / Local Metabolic Control / Endothelial-Dependent Control / Neural Activation and Circulating Hormones / Coronary Stenosis, Myocardial Ischemia, and Effects of Disease / Summary / Reference List / Author Biography

Reflex Control of the Circulation

Author : Irving H. Zucker
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Reflex Control of the Circulation presents an interdisciplinary discussion of concepts in the reflex control of circulation. This volume describes aspects of autonomic receptor physiology, central pathways of reflex control, the electrophysiology of cardiovascular afferents, the interaction between reflexes, the autonomic control of regional blood flows, the autonomic control of fluid and electrolyte balance, and neurohumoral control of the circulation through normal and pathological states (e.g., hypertension, congestive heart failure). In addition, the regulation of regional blood flow during exercise and developmental aspects of reflex control are examined. Any researcher interested in the autonomic system and its role in circulation will find this book fascinating reading.

Reflex Control of the Circulation

Author : Irving H. Zucker
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Reflex Control of the Circulation presents an interdisciplinary discussion of concepts in the reflex control of circulation. This volume describes aspects of autonomic receptor physiology, central pathways of reflex control, the electrophysiology of cardiovascular afferents, the interaction between reflexes, the autonomic control of regional blood flows, the autonomic control of fluid and electrolyte balance, and neurohumoral control of the circulation through normal and pathological states (e.g., hypertension, congestive heart failure). In addition, the regulation of regional blood flow during exercise and developmental aspects of reflex control are examined. Any researcher interested in the autonomic system and its role in circulation will find this book fascinating reading.

The Aging Cardiovascular System

Author : Vladimir Veniaminovich Frolʹkis
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The Vertebrate Gas Transport Cascade

Author : J. Eduardo P. W Bicudo
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This volume presents contributions given at the international symposium on The Vertebrate Gas Transport Cascade: Adaptations to Environment and Mode of Life, held in São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil from September 10-15, 1991. Recent developments in the field and the unifying principles of basic respiratory mechanisms are covered, and reviews in major areas of respiratory physiology are complemented by recent experimental data. Principal topics discussed include conditions for gas exchange in selected special environments, ventilation of the gas exchanger, diffusing capacity and exchange between respired medium and blood, respiratory pigments and oxygen transport by blood, cardiovascular function and oxygen transport by blood, oxygen delivery to tissue, and transition to anaerobic metabolism. The Vertebrate Gas Transport Cascade: Adaptations to Environment and Mode of Life will be a useful addition to the reference collections of respiratory physiologists, comparative physiologists, cardiovascular physiologists, experimental biologists, students, and others interested in the topic.

Recent Advances in Coronary Circulation

Author : Yukio Maruyama
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Coronary circulation research is advancing at a rapid rate. Not only are inno vative techniques for studying myocardial perfusion being developed, new mechanisms related to coronary blood flow control and mechanics are also being discovered. The progress in this field justifies an update in the form of this new monograph. The book is divided into the following sections: "Measurement of Coronary Blood Flow and Assessment of Myocardial Per fusion" discusses advances in perfusion measurements in humans as well as nonradioactive microsphere methods. . "Coronary Flow Dynamics" elucidates the effect of heart contraction on coronary flow, perfusion, and reserve distribution as well as systolic-diastolic interaction. Models-a frequent topic of debate-are used to quantify hypotheses. "Models of Coronary Circulation" attempts to elucidate the concept of tissue pressure. "Regulatory Mechanisms of Coronary circulation and its Clinical Relevance": N u.merous mechanisms affecting coronary flow have been defined and studied at the level of isolated vessels and whole organs. The chapters in this section provide an in-depth analysis of a selection of these mechanisms and their inter actions. "Pathophysiology of Coronary Circulation in Ischemic Heart Disease" considers important aspects of factors which restrict perfusion of the myocardium in ischemic heart disease. An understanding these factors is of crucial importance in the management of patients. "Small Vessel Disorder in Coronary Circulation" describes circulatory flow and how it can be influenced by drugs.

Current Concepts in Cardiovascular Physiology

Author : Oscar Garfein
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Current Concepts in Cardiovascular Physiology examines seven different areas related to the field of cardiac physiology. In addition to the biochemistry and receptor pharmacology of the heart, this book explores coronary physiology, cardiovascular function, and neural and reflex control of the circulation. The electrophysiology and biophysics of cardiac excitation are also considered, along with humoral control of the circulation. This monograph consists of seven chapters and opens with an overview of the biochemistry of the heart, with emphasis on cardiac energy metabolism and the ways in which metabolism and the biochemical pathways are controlled. The mechanisms whereby physiological events influence biochemical activities and vice versa are also discussed. The following chapters look at the chemistry and physiology of myocardial receptors; the complex interplay between the nervous and cardiovascular systems; and the chemical and hormonal factors that regulate, modify, and modulate the cardiovascular system. The influence of humoral, neural, intrinsic, vascular, and myocardial factors on coronary blood flow is also examined, along with muscle mechanics; the biochemical basis of contraction; cardiac function; and the factors determining the heart's electrophysiologic behavior. This text is directed primarily at clinical cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons, and trainees in their disciplines, as well as internists, medical students, and house officers.

Spinal Cord Stimulation II

Author : S. Horsch
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Spinal Cord Stimulation II (SCS) contains the state of the art of this innovative method in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. The volume presents such topics as: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain.- Management of Critical Limb Ischemia.- Spinal Cord Stimulation for Angina Pectoris.- Buerger's Disease.- Miscellaneous.

Basic and Clinical Neurocardiology

Author : J. Andrew Armour
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The progression of heart disease is associated with changes in the neurohumoral mechanisms that control cardiac function. The degree to which this neurohumoral remodeling occurs, even before overt signs of cardiac disease become manifest, is important for prognosis. To determine why some patients experience sudden death while others sustain life in the presence of severely compromised cardiac function, the neuronal control of cardiac electrical and mechanical events must be considered. Starting at the level of individual neurons and building upwards, this book describes the synergistic interactions that occur among intrathoracic and CNS feedback loops to permit precise control of regional cardiac behavior. On this basic science foundation, subsequent clinical chapters explore the remodeling that occurs in this system with aging, with the evolution of specific cardiac pathologies, and with the psychological concomitants of heart disease. Most importantly, these chapters provide unique insights into how specific therapies like beta-andrenergic receptor blockade not only affect cardiomyocytes directly but also mitigate the adverse neurohumoral changes that accompany disease processes, such as heart failure and essential hypertension. The paradigm advanced in this volume is that heart disease is a multifaceted phenomenon involving the interplay of neurohumoral, cardiomyocyte and structural elements, each of which depends on the other. With our cumulative understanding of these interdependent processes, new avenues for time-appropriate, targeted methods of treating heart diseases can be developed.