Search results for: nutrients-and-cell-signaling

Nutrients and Cell Signaling

Author : Janos Zempleni
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Cell signaling is at the core of most biological processes from the simplest to the most complex. In addition to unicellular organisms possessing the essential ability to receive inputs with regard to nutrient availability and noxious stimuli, the cells in multicellular organisms require signaling from adjacent, as well as distant cells to maintain normal internal function, including growth, differentiation, and homeostasis. Conversely, the etiology of many disease processes, such as those involving immune system dysfunction and tumor development, have been traced to aberrant cell signaling. Nutrients and Cell Signaling, in presenting contributions from a wide array of experts in the field, fully delineates the role of nutrients in cell signaling. The text emphasizes broad concepts and covers all major groups of nutrients. Contributors discuss the role of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements in essential processes such as cell proliferation, immune function, and DNA repair. The editors have organized the work to provide select examples organized under these contemporary research areas: Nuclear receptors, transcription factors, and signaling cascades Amino acids, lipids, and glycation Insulin release, signaling, and insulin resistance Calcium-dependent signaling Feeding and nutrient homeostasis Nutrients and Cell Signaling answers the need in the post-genomic era, for an authoritative resource that provides an in-depth understanding of how these complex and dynamic biomolecular networks control cell function. Those professionals and students in molecular biology, nutrition, biochemistry, as well as any branch involved with cell signaling and function will find this book to be an invaluable tool in promoting both understanding and further inquiry.

Dietary Modulation of Cell Signaling Pathways

Author : Zigang Dong
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A consequence of rapid progress in the science of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics is the substantial accumulation of data covering nutrienal modulation of gene expression at the cellular and subcellular levels. Current research is increasingly focused on the role of nutrition and diet in modifying oxidative damage in the progression of disease. Dietary Modulation of Cell Signaling Pathways reviews some of these findings, focusing on nutrient-gene interactions with particular emphasis on the intracellular signaling network. Explore a Pivotal Function for Maintaining Homeostasis The book addresses the dietary modulation of particular gene expression systems and highlights the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that involve upstream signaling molecules, such as kinases and transcription factors in the context of their therapeutic potential. It describes nutrients’ actions on the activation of an antioxidant and inflammatory transcription factor and the induction of their target gene expression. Provides a Mechanistic Understanding of the Action of Dietary Components Comprehensively covering dietary modulation of cell signaling, leading experts provide information on state-of-the-art research in their own specialty. For those working in the fields of dietary components, molecular mechanisms, and health benefits, this book presents a useful tool for mechanistic understanding of the action of dietary components.

Signaling Pathways for Translation

Author : Robert E. Rhoads
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The articles in the present volume are by major contributors to our under standing of signaling pathways affecting protein synthesis. They focus pri marily on two extracellular anabolic signals, although others are included as well. Insulin is one of the best-studied extracellular regulators of protein syn thesis. Several of the known pathways for regulation of protein synthesis were elucidated using insulin-dependent systems. Regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids, by contrast, is an emerging field that has recently received a great deal of attention. The dual role of amino acids as substrates for protein syn thesis and regulators of the overall process has only recently been recognized. Since amino acids serve as precursors for proteins, one might expect that with holding an essential amino acid would inhibit the elongation phase. Surpris ingly, research has shown that it is the initiation phase of protein synthesis that is restricted during amino acid starvation. Understanding the mechanisms by which the biosynthesis of proteins is reg ulated is important for several reasons. Protein synthesis consumes a major portion of the cellular ATP that is generated. Therefore, small changes in protein synthesis can have great consequences for cellular energy metabolism. Translation is also a major site for control of gene expression, since messenger RNAs differ widely in translational efficiency, and changes to the protein syn thesis machinery can differentially affect recruitment of individual mRNAs.

Cell Biology of Metals and Nutrients

Author : Rüdiger Hell
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Plants are composed of 17 essential and at least 5 beneficial elements, and these must be taken up as metal or nutrient ions to allow for growth and cell division. Much effort has been devoted to studying the physiology and biochemistry of metals and nutrients in plants. The aspect of cell biology, however, is an emerging new field and much needs to be learned about sensing, long-distance communication within plants, and cellular signal transduction chains in response to environmental stress. Cellular malfunction and consequently disease result when any of the key steps in metal and nutrient homeostasis are disrupted. Working together, leading experts in their respective fields provide a new concept that reaches beyond plant nutrition and plasmalemma transport into cellular physiology. Each chapter contains basic information on uptake, physiological function, deficiency and toxicity syndromes, long-distance and intracellular transport. The discussion is devoted to metals and nutrients where recent progress has been made and highlights the aspects of homeostasis and sensing, signaling and regulation, drawing parallels to other organisms including humans. Finally, the book identifies gaps in our current knowledge and lays out future research directions.

Nutritional Biochemistry

Author : Tom Brody
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This "real-world" approach allows students to come away with a realistically informed view of the basis for much of our understanding of nutritional biochemistry.

Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes

Author : Zhiyong Cheng
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Nutrients can act as signalling molecules to initiate or mediate signalling transduction that regulates cell function and homeostasis. As such, altered nutrient status has been linked to dysregulated transcripts and protein expression, which affects mitochondrial function, autophagy, inflammation, metabolism and even gut microbiota. This book disseminates the cutting-edge knowledge pertaining to nutritional signalling activities in metabolism and metabolic derangements (e.g., obesity and diabetes), which covers the regulatory mechanisms and dietary interventions for disease prevention. This book represents current nutritional and metabolic research. From the basic (molecular science) perspective, it covers metabolomics, proteomics, nutrigenomics, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, inflammatory pathways, autophagy, mitochondrial health and gut microbiota. From the clinical (translational science) perspective, this book covers clinical trials, precision nutrition, maternal nutrition and transgenerational health, and allometric scaling of dietary bioactives in translational metabolic research. It brings to the reader in-depth understanding of the nutritional aspect, cellular and molecular biology, as well as pathophysiology of obesity and diabetes. In addition, each chapter in this book includes a component of future direction or intervention perspective, making the new knowledge transformative and translational. Aimed at researchers and professionals interested in nutrition, dietetics and metabolic disorders, this book will also appeal to health science researchers.

Nutrient Signaling Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Ovine Conceptus Development

Author : Haijun Gao
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This research was conducted to test the hypothesis that select nutrients including glucose, leucine, arginine and glutamine stimulate conceptus development by activating mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin; HGNC approved gene name: FRAP1, FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1) signaling pathway. First, temporal changes in quantities of select nutrients (glucose, amino acids, glutathione, calcium, sodium and potassium) in uterine lumenal fluid from cyclic (Days 3 to 16) and pregnant (Days 10 to 16) ewes were determined. Total recoverable glucose, Arg, Gln, Leu, Asp, Glu, Asn, His, beta-Ala, Tyr, Trp, Met, Val, Phe, Ile, Lys, Cys, Pro, glutathione, calcium and sodium was greater in uterine fluid of pregnant compared to cyclic ewes between Days 10 and 16 after onset of estrus. Of note were remarkable increases in glucose, Arg, Leu and Gln in uterine flushings of pregnant ewes between Days 10 and 16 of pregnancy. Second, effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, progesterone (P4) and interferon tau (IFNT) on expression of both facilitative (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and SLC2A4) and sodium-dependent (SLC5A1 and SLC5A11) glucose transporters, cationic amino acid transporters (SLC7A1, SLC7A2 and SLC7A3), neutral amino acid transporters (SLC1A4, SLC1A5, SLC3A1, SLC6A14, SLC6A19, SLC7A5, SLC7A6, SLC7A8, SLC38A3, SLC38A6 and SLC43A2) and acidic amino acid transporters (SLC1A1, SLC1A2 and SLC1A3) in ovine uterine endometria from Days 10 to 16 of the estrous cycle and Days 10 to 20 of pregnancy as well as in conceptuses from Days 13 to 18 of pregnancy were determined. Among these genes, SLC2A3 and SLC7A6 were detectable only in trophectoderm and endoderm of conceptuses. The abundance of mRNAs for SLC2A1, SLC2A4, SLC5A1, SLC5A11, SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC1A4, SLC1A5, SLC43A2 and SLC1A3 changed dynamically in ovine uterine endometria according to day of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Expression of mRNAs for SLC2A1, SLC5A11 and SLC7A1 in endometria was induced by P4 and further stimulated by IFNT with shortterm treatment (12 days), while expression of SLC7A1 and SLC1A5 in endometria required long-term treatment (20 days) with P4 and IFNT. Third, effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, P4 and IFNT on expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3), GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1), ornithine decarboxylase 1(ODC1), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2), FRAP1 complexes (FRAP1, LST8, MAPKAP1, RAPTOR, RICTOR), regulators (TSC1, TSC2, RHEB) and an effector (EIF4EBP1) of FRAP1 signaling in ovine uterine endometria from Days 10 to 16 of the estrous cycle and Days 10 to 20 of pregnancy as well as in conceptuses from Days 13 to 18 of pregnancy were determined. All of these genes were expressed in ovine uterine endometrium and conceptuses. Among these genes, expression of NOS1, IGF2, RHEB and EIF4EBP1 changed dynamically due to day of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Progesterone stimulated NOS1 and GCH1 expression while IFNT inhibited NOS1 expression in uterine endometria, and P4 and IFNT stimulated expression of RHEB and EIF4EBP1 in uterine endometria. Collectively, these results indicate that: 1) the availability of select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen increases to support the rapid growth and elongation of the conceptus during the peri-implantation stage of pregnancy; 2) P4 and/or IFNT stimulate(s) glucose and amino acid transporters to facilitate their transport from maternal tissues and/or blood into the uterine lumen during early pregnancy; 3) the FRAP1 cell signaling pathway mediates interactions between the maternal uterus and peri-implantation conceptus and both P4 and IFNT affect this pathway by regulating expression of RHEB and EIF4EBP1. Expression of NOS, ODC1 and IGF2 appear to be linked to FRAP1 signaling in both uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses.

Cell Signaling

Author : Wendell Lim
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Cell Signaling presents the principles and components that underlie all known signaling processes. It provides undergraduate and graduate students the conceptual tools needed to make sense of the dizzying array of pathways used by the cell to communicate. By emphasizing the common design principles, components, and logic that drives all signa

Nutritional Sciences From Fundamentals to Food

Author : Michelle McGuire
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Crystal Clear, Up-to-Date Science + Compelling Applications = A Balanced Program for Teaching and Learning. Now updated with the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the latest findings from today's constantly evolving nutrition science literature, NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES: FROM FUNDAMENTALS TO FOOD, 4th Edition, clearly explains the scientific principles underlying nutrition while incorporating applications to help students develop a complete understanding of core concepts. This integrated approach provides a strong science foundation in a context relevant to students' daily lives. Supported by an impressive visual design, engaging case studies, and available interactive digital resources, NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES offers a unique, balanced program for teaching and learning. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Cell Biology of Metals and Nutrients

Author : Rüdiger Hell
File Size : 43.16 MB
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Plants are composed of 17 essential and at least 5 beneficial elements, and these must be taken up as metal or nutrient ions to allow for growth and cell division. Much effort has been devoted to studying the physiology and biochemistry of metals and nutrients in plants. The aspect of cell biology, however, is an emerging new field and much needs to be learned about sensing, long-distance communication within plants, and cellular signal transduction chains in response to environmental stress. Cellular malfunction and consequently disease result when any of the key steps in metal and nutrient homeostasis are disrupted. Working together, leading experts in their respective fields provide a new concept that reaches beyond plant nutrition and plasmalemma transport into cellular physiology. Each chapter contains basic information on uptake, physiological function, deficiency and toxicity syndromes, long-distance and intracellular transport. The discussion is devoted to metals and nutrients where recent progress has been made and highlights the aspects of homeostasis and sensing, signaling and regulation, drawing parallels to other organisms including humans. Finally, the book identifies gaps in our current knowledge and lays out future research directions.