Search results for: obesity-in-europe

The Rise of Obesity in Europe

Author : Derek J. Oddy
File Size : 67.38 MB
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Twentieth century Europe went through a dramatic transition from low income populations experiencing hunger and nutritionally inadequate diets, to the recent era of over-consumption and growing numbers of overweight and obese people. By examining the trends in food history from case studies across Europe, this book offers a historical context to explain how and why this transition has occurred and what we can learn in order to try and address the vitally important issues arising from obesity in contemporary Europe.

Obesity

Author : World Health Organization
File Size : 88.90 MB
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This report issues a call for urgent action to combat the growing epidemic of obesity, which now affects developing and industrialized countries alike. Adopting a public health approach, the report responds to both the enormity of health problems associated with obesity and the notorious difficulty of treating this complex, multifactorial disease. With these problems in mind, the report aims to help policy-makers introduce strategies for prevention and management that have the greatest chance of success. The importance of prevention as the most sensible strategy in developing countries, where obesity coexists with undernutrition, is repeatedly emphasized. Recommended lines of action, which reflect the consensus reached by 25 leading authorities, are based on a critical review of current scientific knowledge about the causes of obesity in both individuals and populations. While all causes are considered, major attention is given to behavioural and societal changes that have increased the energy density of diets, overwhelmed sophisticated regulatory systems that control appetite and maintain energy balance, and reduced physical activity. Specific topics discussed range from the importance of fat content in the food supply as a cause of population-wide obesity, through misconceptions about obesity held by both the medical profession and the public, to strategies for dealing with the alarming prevalence of obesity in children. "... the volume is clearly written, and carries a wealth of summary information that is likely to be invaluable for anyone interested in the public health aspects of obesity and fatness, be they students, practitioner or researcher." - Journal of Biosocial Science

EU Law and Obesity Prevention

Author : Amandine Garde
File Size : 60.90 MB
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Since the 1980s, there has been an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity in virtually every country in the world. As obesity is known to lead to both chronic and severe medical problems, it imposes a cost not only on affected individuals and their families, but also on society as a whole. In Europe, the Obesity Prevention White Paper of May 2007 - followed by the adoption of an EU School Fruit Scheme, the acknowledgement that food advertising to children should be limited, and proposed legislation to make nutrition labeling compulsory - has firmly placed obesity on the EU agenda by laying down a multi-sectoral strategy and a basis for future action. In accordance with this growing sense of urgency, this is the first book to offer an in-depth legal analysis of obesity prevention, with particular reference to Europe. It describes what the EU has done and could do to support Member States in fighting the obesity epidemic, and clearly shows the way to locating advocacy strategies within the framework of EU law. The thorough analysis includes a discussion of the following issues: the need to address nutrition and physical activity as important health determinants; the emphasis traditionally placed at EU level on food safety rather than food quality; the need for the development of databases on nutrition and physical activity, comparable common indicators and risk assessment mechanisms; mainstreaming public health into all EU policies; the scope of EU powers in the case law of the Court of Justice; the role of information in the EU's obesity prevention strategy; the Commission's proposed Mandatory Nutrition Declaration; the Food Claims Regulation; the regulation of food marketing to children, and in particular the role of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive, the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and industry self-regulation; food reformulation; the use of economic instruments in the EU's obesity prevention strategy, with an emphasis on the Common Agricultural Policy and the EU's taxation policy; and EU action in the fields of sport, occupational health and safety, and transport policy. The author convincingly shows that conflicts of interest inherent in market forces demand a strong EU intervention, preferably through legislation than self-regulation. She also demonstrates the urgent need to reach an agreement, on the basis of reliable data, about what is effective in practice to improve lifestyles. The study acknowledges that the law is not a panacea, but nonetheless has an influential role to play in making the healthy choice an easier choice, and must move decisively towards ensuring that the societal costs associated with obesity are sustainable, and that the ultimate goal of a healthy population is achievable. The book is essential reading for everyone involved or interested in the development of the EU's obesity prevention policy.

Obesity in Europe

Author : Wolf-Dietrich Brettschneider
File Size : 70.52 MB
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It was in 2003 that the EU Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture commissioned a «Study on young people's lifestyles and sedentariness and the role of sport in the context of education and as a means of restoring the balance». The purpose of this study was to compile an intercultural comparative analysis of adolescents' lifestyles within the EU. This analysis was based on international and national studies from the areas of epidemiology, cardiology, paediatrics, physiology, nutrition, psychology, sociology and sport sciences dealing with physical activity, fitness and motor abilities.

Health at a Glance Europe 2020 State of Health in the EU Cycle

Author : OECD
File Size : 74.25 MB
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The 2020 edition of Health at a Glance: Europe focuses on the impact of the COVID‐19 crisis. Chapter 1 provides an initial assessment of the resilience of European health systems to the COVID-19 pandemic and their ability to contain and respond to the worst pandemic in the past century.

Health at a Glance Europe 2018 State of Health in the EU Cycle

Author : OECD
File Size : 76.34 MB
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Health at a Glance: Europe 2018 presents comparative analyses of the health status of EU citizens and the performance of the health systems of the 28 EU Member States, 5 candidate countries and 3 EFTA countries.

Obesity

Author : Debasis Bagchi
File Size : 20.85 MB
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The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. Its prevalence has more than doubled since 1980, causing a myriad of health problems for children and adults. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition explores the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology leading to obesity and metabolic disorders. It examines the safety of obesity drugs and drug development strategies as well as the role of physical activity, nutrition, and nutraceutical supplements in obesity treatment and prevention. With contributions from a cadre of internationally known experts, the book covers a spectrum of essential topics related to this widespread phenomenon, including: The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes The addiction mechanism related to refined foods as a significant factor in obesity The correlation between obesity and environmental estrogens, endocrine disruption, cigarette smoking, and inflammatory response The role of drug and chemical toxicities and genomic imprinting disorders in obesity The safety and regulation of prescription and over-the-counter weight loss drugs Various diets, the glycemic index, and the role of exercise in treating or preventing obesity Controversy over effective vs. banned weight loss supplements Childhood obesity and its prevention Bariatric surgery for weight management and reversal of metabolic disorders As the public has become more aware of the deadly adverse effects of obesity, numerous products and programs have targeted the overweight and obese population, many with dangerous side effects. It is essential that we develop strategic, therapeutic intervention supported by credible data. This volume is an ideal reference point for researchers looking for new avenues of inquiry and practicing medical professionals, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians seeking guidance for their patients.

European Union Public Health Policy

Author : Scott L. Greer
File Size : 46.14 MB
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Ranging from influence over world trade laws affecting health to population health issues such as obesity to the use of comparative data to affect policy, the EU’s public health policies are increasingly important, visible, expensive and effective. They also provide an invaluable case study for those who want to understand the growth and impact of the EU as well as how states can affect their populations’ lives and health. European Union Public Health Policy capitalizes on extensive new research, providing an introduction to the topic and indicating new intellectual directions surrounding the topic. An introductory section and extended conclusion explore the meaning of public health, the relationship of EU public health policy to health care policy, and the place of public health in the study of European integration and Europeanization. Focusing on health system transformation, global health governance and population health, the chapters address: Relevant policy issues and EU policies; Effects of the EU policies on practice or outcomes; An explanation of the policy trajectory; Current issues and likely future directions or conflicts. Drawing together an international and multidisciplinary selection of experts, this volume is an important contribution for all those interested in public health policy, EU health policy and EU governance.

Handbook of Pediatric Obesity

Author : Michael I. Goran
File Size : 40.11 MB
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Understanding the numerous factors involved with body weight regulation and identifying interventions to prevent or treat the problem is an enormous task in and of itself. Addressing this issue in growing children is further complicated by the diverse challenges specific to children. Because of this, the field of childhood obesity is both extremely

Global Health Complications of Obesity

Author : Jahangir Moini
File Size : 90.53 MB
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Global Health Complications of Obesity presents a valuable resource for research scientists and clinicians by covering the burden of obesity and related diseases and serving as a starting point for in-depth discussions in academic settings and for obesity-treatment specialists. Obesity is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and many other diseases. This succinct resource focuses on the current data, research and management of obesity. It is essential reading for healthcare professionals, endocrinologists, nutritionists, public health students and medical students. Presents clinical cases, key terms and targeted references Addresses diseases including diabetes, cancer, hypertension, osteoarthritis, fatty liver disease, infertility, renal failure and depression Provides a link to new knowledge that is ideal for both researchers and clinicians