Search results for: particles-of-light

Particles and Waves

Author : Peter Achinstein
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This volume brings together eleven essays by the distinguished philosopher of science, Peter Achinstein. The unifying theme is the nature of the philosophical problems surrounding the postulation of unobservable entities such as light waves, molecules, and electrons. How, if at all, is it possible to confirm scientific hypotheses about "unobservables"? Achinstein examines this question as it arose in actual scientific practice in three nineteenth-century episodes: the debate between particle and wave theorists of light, Maxwell's kinetic theory of gases, and J.J. Thomson's discovery of the electron. The book contains three parts, each devoted to one of these topics, beginning with an essay presenting the historical background of the episode and an introduction to the philosophical issues. There is an illuminating evaluation of various scientific methodologies, including hypothetico-deductivism, inductivism, and the method of independent warrant which combines features of the first two. Achinstein assesses the philosophical validity of both nineteenth-century and modern answers to questions about unobservables, and presents and defends his own solutions.

Handbook of Fluidization and Fluid Particle Systems

Author : Wen-Ching Yang
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This reference details particle characterization, dynamics, manufacturing, handling, and processing for the employment of multiphase reactors, as well as procedures in reactor scale-up and design for applications in the chemical, mineral, petroleum, power, cement and pharmaceuticals industries. The authors discuss flow through fixed beds, elutriati

Waves and Particles in Light and Matter

Author : Augusto Garuccio
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From September 24 through 30, 1992 the Workshop on "Waves and Parti cles in Light and Matter" was held in the Italian city of Trani in celebration of the centenary of Louis de Broglie's birth. As is well known, the relationship between quantum theory and ob jective reality was one of the main threads running through the researches of this French physicist. It was therefore in a fitting tribute to him on his 90th birthday that ten years ago an international conference on the same subject was convened in Perugia. On that occasion, physicists from all over the world interested in the problematics of wave-particle duality engaged in thoughtful debates (the proceedings of which were subsequently published) on recent theoretical and experimental developments in our understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. This time around, about 120 scientists, coming from 5 continents, in the warm and pleasant atmosphere of Trani's Colonna Conference Center focussed their discussions on recent results concerned with the EPR para dox, matter-interferometry, reality of de Broglie's waves, photon detection, macroscopic quantum coherence, alternative theories to usual quantum mechanics, special relativity, state reduction, and other related topics. The workshop was organized in plenary sessions, round tables, and poster sessions, and the present volume collects most-but not all-of the presented papers. A number of acknowledgements are due. We thank, first of all, the contributors, without whose constant dedication this volume could not have been published.

Light Scattering From Micrometric Mineral Dust and Aggregate Particles

Author : Llorenç Cremonesi
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Light scattering from particles in the nanometric and micrometric size range is relevant in several research fields, such as aerosol science and nanotechnology. In many applications, the description of the optical properties of non-spherical, inhomogeneous particles is still inadequate or requires demanding numerical calculations. Lorenz–Mie scattering and effective medium approximations represent currently the main theoretical tools to model such particles, but their effectiveness has been recently called into question. This work examines how the morphology of a particle affects its scattering parameters from an experimental standpoint, supporting findings with extensive simulations. The dust content of Antarctic, Greenlandic, and Alpine ice cores is analysed with a particle-by-particle approach. Moreover, a study on colloidal aggregates shows that correlations among the fields radiated by primary particles are responsible for the poor agreement of effective medium approximations with experimental results. On the theoretical side, an interpretation in terms of the structure factor is given, which satisfactorily describes the data. The insights of this thesis are relevant for quantifying the contribution of mineral dust to the radiative energy balance of the Earth.

Electromagnetic Scattering by Particles and Particle Groups

Author : Michael I. Mishchenko
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This self-contained and accessible book provides a thorough introduction to the basic physical and mathematical principles required in studying the scattering and absorption of light and other electromagnetic radiation by particles and particle groups. For the first time the theories of electromagnetic scattering, radiative transfer, and weak localization are combined into a unified, consistent branch of physical optics directly based on the Maxwell equations. A particular focus is given to key aspects such as time and ensemble averaging at different scales, ergodicity, and the physical nature of measurements afforded by actual photopolarimeters. Featuring over 120 end-of-chapter exercises, with hints and solutions provided, this clear, one-stop resource is ideal for self-study or classroom use, and will be invaluable to both graduate students and researchers in remote sensing, physical and biomedical optics, optical communications, optical particle characterization, atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

Light Scattering by Small Particles

Author : H. C. van de Hulst
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Comprehensive treatment of light-scattering properties of small, independent particles, including a full range of useful approximation methods for researchers in chemistry, meteorology, and astronomy. 46 tables. 59 graphs. 44 illustrations.

Particle Characterization Light Scattering Methods

Author : Renliang Xu
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Particle characterization is an important component in product research and development, manufacture, and quality control of particulate materials and an important tool in the frontier of sciences, such as in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This book systematically describes one major branch of modern particle characterization technology - the light scattering methods. This is the first monograph in particle science and technology covering the principles, instrumentation, data interpretation, applications, and latest experimental development in laser diffraction, optical particle counting, photon correlation spectroscopy, and electrophoretic light scattering. In addition, a summary of all major particle sizing and other characterization methods, basic statistics and sample preparation techniques used in particle characterization, as well as almost 500 latest references are provided. The book is a must for industrial users of light scattering techniques characterizing a variety of particulate systems and for undergraduate or graduate students who want to learn how to use light scattering to study particular materials, in chemical engineering, material sciences, physical chemistry and other related fields.

Powder Sampling and Particle Size Determination

Author : T. Allen
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Powder technology is a rapidly expanding technology and nowhere more than in particle characterization. There has been an explosion of new particle measuring techniques in the past ten year particularly in the field of on-line measurement. One of the main aims of this book is to bring the reader up-to-date with current practices. One important area of interest is the improvements in on-line light scattering instruments and the introduction of ultrasonic on-line devices. Another is the introduction of on-line microscopy, which permits shape analysis in conjunction with particle sizing. Schools of powder technology are common in Europe and Japan but the importance of this subject has only recently been recognised in America with the emergence of the Particle Research Centre (PERC) at the University of Florida in Gainsville. - Details all the latest developments in powder technology - Written by established authority on powder technology - A comprehensive text covering all aspects of powder technology and handling of particulate solids including characterization, handling and applications

Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles

Author : Michael I. Mishchenko
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Monograph on multiple scattering of light by small particles; resource for science professionals, engineers, and graduate students.

Research on Particle Imaging Detectors

Author : Georges Charpak
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Much instrumentation has been developed for imaging the trajectories of elementary particles produced in high energy collisions. Since 1968, gaseous detectors, beginning with multiwire chambers and drift chambers, have been used for the visualisation of particle trajectories and the imaging of X-rays, neutrons, hard gamma rays, beta rays and ultraviolet photons.This book commemorates the groundbreaking research leading to the evolution of such detectors carried out at CERN by Georges Charpak, Nobel Prizewinner for Physics in 1992. Besides collecting his key papers, the book also includes original linking commentary which sets his work in the context of other worldwide research.