Search results for: pronominal-gender-in-english

Pronominal Gender in English

Author : Peter Siemund
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This book investigates the use of English third person pronouns (he, she, it) across different varieties of English, where we frequently find he and she used for inanimate objects (the tree – he, the house – he, the bucket – he, but the water – it). It is the first book-length study of this subject. Varieties of English are discussed in the context of Germanic and Romance languages and dialects as well as a small sample of additional languages. The analysis is conducted within the framework set out by functional typology. The book's straightforward and illuminating generalization in terms of the well known hierarchy of individuation provides a systematic link between pronominal usage in Standard English and its varieties.

Pronoun Envy

Author : Anna Livia
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This text examines a broad corpus of written texts in English and French, concentrating on those texts which problemise the traditional functioning of the linguistic gender system.

Grammatical Gender in English

Author : Charles Jones
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First published in 1988, this book explores the grammatical loss of gender in English. It demonstrates that from the end of the Old English period, there was a considerable time period, of about three hundred years, during which there existed "echoes" of the gender classification of nouns. The study records the best known conclusions concerning the behaviour of anaphoric pronouns under grammatical gender "stress" in the late Old English and Middle English periods. It focuses on a discussion of attributive word morphology in the noun phrase.

Variation typology

Author : Thorsten Roelcke
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Der Band verbindet erstmals eine sprachtypologische und eine variationslinguistische Betrachtung von 34 europäischen Sprachen in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Die einzelnen Sprachen werden dabei jeweils zunächst im Hinblick auf ihre sprachtypologischen Grundzüge auf drei Ebenen charakterisiert: Lautung (Bestand an Vokalen und Konsonanten, Prosodik und weitere Erscheinungen), Morphologie (Inventar an grammatischen Kategorien, Verhältnis zwischen synthetischem und analytischem Sprachbau sowie Repräsentation morphologischer Haupttypen) und Syntax (Wort- und Satzgliedstellung, Einordnung aus Sicht der relationalen Typologie sowie prominenztypologische Einordnung). Im Anschluss hieran werden jeweils die lautliche, morphologische und syntaktische Variation dieser Sprachen in historischer, regionaler, sozialer und funktionaler Hinsicht sprachtypologisch interpretiert sowie auf Konstanten und Tendenzen hin analysiert. Auf diese Weise trägt der Band einerseits zu einem tieferen und breiteren Verständnis der strukturellen Variation europäischer Sprachen bei und eröffnet andererseits neue Perspektiven für die allgemeine und vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft.

Gender Shifts in the History of English

Author : Anne Curzan
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How and why did grammatical gender, found in Old English and in other Germanic languages, gradually disappear from English and get replaced by a system where the gender of nouns and the use of personal pronouns depend on the natural gender of the referent? How is this shift related to 'irregular agreement' (such as she for ships) and 'sexist' language use (such as generic he) in Modern English, and how is the language continuing to evolve in these respects? Anne Curzan's accessibly written and carefully researched study is based on extensive corpus data, and will make a major contribution by providing a historical perspective on these often controversial questions. It will be of interest to researchers and students in history of English, historical linguistics, corpus linguistics, language and gender, and medieval studies.

Gender Acquisition in Spanish

Author : Jessica Diebowski
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The comparative investigation of the acquisition of gender in Spanish by early and late bilinguals of different language combinations is highly debated and crucial as the phenomenon of gender involves grammatical features that differ in all three languages under investigation. Against this background, both early and late bilinguals face an arduous learning task which differs in complexity. Couched within a generative framework, the empirical study focuses on 257 participants with different levels of proficiency in Spanish ranging from low to advanced, and through a series of tests aims to discover which extra-linguistic and intra-linguistic factors act as triggers for non-native outcomes in adult heritage speakers and L2 learners. The observed morphological variability is argued not to stem from a representational (i.e. syntactic) deficit, but rather from a mapping problem in L2 learners and heritage speakers. Successful attainment in terms of gender is possible but dependent on the interplay between various extralinguistic and linguistic factors.

The Language System of English

Author : Vulf Plotkin
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A description of the English language as a dynamic system in the evolutionary process of radical typological restructuring, which has deeply affected its constituent subsystems - grammatical, lexical and phonic.

Varieties of English

Author : Peter Siemund
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This coursebook is an introduction to the fascinating range of regional and social varieties of English encountered around the world. It is specially designed to meet the needs of students, each chapter contains useful exercises targeted at three different ability levels and succinct summaries help students to review important facts.

Agreement Gender Relative Clauses

Author : Bernd Kortmann
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This volume offers qualitative as well as corpus-based quantitative studies on three domains of grammatical variation in the British Isles. All studies draw heavily on the Freiburg English Dialect Corpus (FRED), a computerized corpus for predominantly British English dialects comprising some 2.5 million words. Besides an account of FRED and the advantages which a functional-typological framework offers for the study of dialect grammar, the volume includes the following three substantial studies. Tanja Herrmann's study is the first systematic cross-regional study of relativization strategies for Scotland, Northern Ireland, and four major dialect areas in England. In her research design Hermann has included a number of issues crucial in typological research on relative clauses, above all the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy. Lukas Pietsch investigates the so-called Northern Subject Rule, a special agreement phenomenon known from Northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. His study is primarily based on the Northern Ireland Transcribed Corpus of Speech, but also on the FRED and SED data (Survey of English Dialects) for the North of England. Susanne Wagner is concerned with the phenomenon of pronominal gender, focussing especially on the typologically rather unique semantic gender system in the dialects of Southwest England. This volume will be of interest to dialectologists, sociolinguists, typologists, historical linguists, grammarians, and anyone interested in the structure of spontaneous spoken English.

Grammar and Gender

Author : Dennis E. Baron
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Traces the history of sexual bias in the English language, examines attempts at reform, and discusses new words coined to reduce sexism in language

Advances in Cognitive Sociolinguistics

Author : Dirk Geeraerts
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The book brings together ten studies into the social and conceptual aspects of language-internal variation. All contributions rely on a firm empirical basis in the form of advanced corpus-based techniques, experimenntal methods and survey-based research, or a combination of these. In the book, methods are sought that may adequately unravel the complex and multivariate dimensions intervening in the interplay between conceptual meaning and variationist factors. In terms of its descriptive scope, the volume covers three main areas: lexical and lexical-semantic variation, constructional variation, and research on lectal attitudes and acquisition. It thus illustrates how Cognitive Sociolinguistics studies both the variation of meaning, and the meaning of variation.

American Indian English

Author : William L Leap
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American Indian English documents and examines the diversity of English in American Indian speech communities. It presents a convincing case for the fundamental influence of ancestral American Indian languages and cultures on spoken and written expression in different Indian English codes. A distillation of over twenty years' research, this pioneering work explores the linguistic and sociolinguistic characteristics of English language use among members of Navajo, Hopi, Mojave, Ute, Tsimshian, Kotzebue, Ponca, Pima, Lakota, Cheyenne, Laguna, Santa Ana, Isleta, Chilcotin, Seminole, Cherokee, and other American Indian tribes. American Indian English fills numerous gaps in existing studies of language histories, Indian student school experience, Indian-white contact, and "acculturation." Unlike contemporary studies on schooling, ethnicity, empowerment, and educational failure, American Indian English avoids postmodernist jargon and discourse strategies in favor of direct description and commentary. Data are derived from conditions of real-life experience faced by speakers of Indian English in various English-speaking settings. This practical focus enhances the book's accessibility to Indian educators and community-based teachers, as well as non-Indian academics.

British Pronoun Use Prescription and Processing

Author : L. Paterson
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This study considers the use of they and he for generic reference in post-2000 written British English. The analysis is framed by a consideration of language-internal factors, such as syntactic agreement, and language-external factors, which include traditional grammatical prescriptivism and the language reforms resulting from second-wave feminism.

Semantic Versus Lexical Gender

Author : Margot Kraaikamp
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Gender agreement typically involves agreement between the lexical gender of a noun and associated words such as determiners, adjectives and pronouns. However, pronouns in particular do not always show agreement with the lexical gender of the noun. They sometimes show?semantic gender agreement? instead, that is, agreement based on certain properties of the referent. In Dutch, and other Germanic varieties, a semantic agreement pattern exists that is based on the degree of individuation of the referent: masculine pronouns are used with referents that have a high degree of individuation and neuter pronouns with referents that have a low degree of individuation. This semantic agreement competes with lexical gender agreement in Dutch pronouns.0The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the origin of agreement based on individuation in Dutch, when it has developed and what factors could be involved in its surfacing. This work consists of four studies that address these questions, including a historical corpus study of Middle Dutch and experimental studies with speakers of German and speakers of Dutch.0The results of this dissertation show that the semantic agreement pattern in Dutch pronouns relates to an existing semantic interpretation of the genders that possibly reflects the semantic roots of the Germanic genders. It appears that the competition between semantic and lexical gender has long existed and that the extent to which semantic agreement surfaces is connected with the visibility of lexical gender in the noun phrase, a factor that varies both synchronically and diachronically in Germanic gender systems.

An Interdisciplinary Bibliography on Language Gender and Sexuality 2000 2011

Author : Heiko Motschenbacher
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This comprehensive, state-of-the-art bibliography documents the most recent research activity in the vibrant field of language, gender and sexuality. It provides experts in the field and students in tertiary education with access to language-centred resources on gender and sexuality and is, therefore, an ideal research companion. The main part of the bibliography lists 3,454 relevant publications (monographs, edited volumes, journal articles and contributions to edited volumes) that have been published within the period from 2000 to 2011. It unites work done in linguistics with that of neighbouring disciplines, covering studies dealing with a broad range of languages and cultures around the globe. Alphabetical listing and a keyword index facilitate finding relevant work by author and subject matter. The e-book version additionally enables users to search the entire document for specific terms. Sections on earlier bibliographies and general reference works on language, gender and sexuality complete the compilation.

Reinventing Pronoun Gender

Author : Jenny Audring
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Person Reference and Gender in Translation

Author : Marion Kremer
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Word and Its Ways in English

Author : Walter Hirtle
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Words are the foundation, the building blocks of language. While an obvious and irreplaceable concept in the minds of non-linguists, the entry "word" does not figure in the indexes of some books on linguistics. Why is there this neglect of the word among many contemporary linguists? Inspired by the work of the French linguist Gustave Guillaume and the last in a series of books, The Word and Its Ways in English is a study of the way the word is configured in English, and an attempt to discern its nature. Walter Hirtle presents the word as the smallest element of meaning in the brain. He also explores how thoughts in the mind of a speaker become a succession of spoken words that are translated back into meaning in the mind of a listener. He examines different categories of words and how grammatical components such as person, case, and gender contribute to a word’s meaning and are intimately linked to the mind. A thought-provoking account of the workings of grammar and the semantic notions that underlie grammatical distinctions, The Word and Its Ways in English is essential reading for anyone seeking a deeper understanding of the link between language, meaning, and words.

The Oxford Handbook of English Grammar

Author : Bas Aarts
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This handbook provides an authoritative, critical survey of current research and knowledge in the grammar of the English language. Following an introduction from the editors, the volume's expert contributors explore a range of core topics in English grammar, beginning with issues in grammar writing and methodology. Chapters in part II then examine the various theoretical approaches to grammar, such as cognitive, constructional, and generative approaches, followed by the chapters in part III, which comprehensively cover the different subdomains of grammar, including compounds, phrase structure, clause types, tense and aspect, and information structure. Part IV offers coverage of the relationship between grammar and other fields - lexis, phonology, meaning, and discourse - while the concluding part of the book investigates grammatical change over time, regional variation, and genre and literary variation. The handbook's wide-ranging coverage will appeal to researchers and students of English language and linguistics from undergraduate level upwards.

Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English

Author : Marina Dossena
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The volume presents an innovative approach to studies in Late Modern English by giving attention to variation and change in varieties of English on both sides of the Atlantic. As new corpora become available, scholarly interests broaden their horizons to encompass varieties, the history of which has only just begun to be investigated, and which are likely to yield significant findings. The contributors, whose long experience in the field of English historical linguistics ensures in-depth investigations, employ state-of-the-art tools for the analysis of specific phenomena and to set these in the light of a more encompassing framework concerning different text types and sociolinguistic considerations. While usage guides and dictionaries prove remarkable in their contribution to the definition of what is (not) acceptable in specific social circles, the language of ordinary users also takes centre stage in studies of correspondence, journals and travelogues. The volume is expected to appeal to scholars and students interested in the linguistic history of English as seen in contexts on which – until now – relatively little light has been shed.