Search results for: respiration-and-crop-productivity

Respiration and Crop Productivity

Author : Jeffrey S. Amthor
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Respiration is a large and important component of the carbon economy of crops. There are already several good books dealing with the biochemistry and physiol ogy of plant respiration, but there are none I know of that are devoted to the rela tionship between respiration and crop productivity, although this relationship is more and more frequently being studied with both experiment and simulation. Crop physiology books do cover respiration, of course, but the treatment is limited. The purpose of the present book is to fill this void in the literature. The approach taken here is to use the popular two-component functional model whereby respiration is divided between growth and maintenance components. Mter thoroughly reviewing the literature, I came to the conclusion that at present this is the most useful means of considering respiration as a quantitative compo nent of a crop's carbon economy. This functional distinction is used as the frame work for describing respiration and assessing its role in crop productivity. Discussions and critiques of the biochemistry and physiology of respiration serve primarily as a means of more fully understanding and describing the functional approach to studying crop respiration. It is assumed that the reader of this book is familiar with the fundamentals of plant physiology and biochemistry. The research worker in crop physiology should find this an up-to-date summary of crop respiration and the functional model of respiration. This book is not, however, a simple review of existing data.

Plant Respiration

Author : Hans Lambers
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Respiration in plants, as in all living organisms, is essential to provide metabolic energy and carbon skeletons for growth and maintenance. As such, respiration is an essential component of a plant’s carbon budget. Depending on species and environmental conditions, it consumes 25-75% of all the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis – even more at extremely slow growth rates. Respiration in plants can also proceed in a manner that produces neither metabolic energy nor carbon skeletons, but heat. This type of respiration involves the cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase; it is unique to plants, and resides in the mitochondria. The activity of this alternative pathway can be measured based on a difference in fractionation of oxygen isotopes between the cytochrome and the alternative oxidase. Heat production is important in some flowers to attract pollinators; however, the alternative oxidase also plays a major role in leaves and roots of most plants. A common thread throughout this volume is to link respiration, including alternative oxidase activity, to plant functioning in different environments.

Effect of High Temperature on Crop Productivity and Metabolism of Macro Molecules

Author : Amitav Bhattacharya
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Effect of High Temperature on Crop Productivity and Metabolism of Macro Molecules presents a comprehensive overview on the direct effect of temperatures defined as "high", a definition which increasingly includes a great number of geographic regions. As temperature impacts the number of base growth days, it is necessary to adapt plant selection, strategize planting times, and understand the expected impact of adaptive steps to ensure maximum plant health and crop yield. Global warming, climate change and change in environmental conditions have become common phrases in nearly every scientific seminar, symposium and meeting, thus these changes in climatic patterns constrain normal growth and reproduction cycles. This book reviews the effect of high temperature on agricultural crop production and the effect of high temperature stress on the metabolic aspects of macro molecules, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, secondary metabolites, and plant growth hormones. Focuses on the effects of high temperature on agriculture and the metabolism of important macro-molecules Discusses strategies for improving heat tolerance, thus educating plant and molecular breeders in their attempts to improve efficiencies and crop production Provides information that can be applied today and in future research

Physiology Of Nutrition And Environmental Stresses On Crop Productivity

Author : A. Hemantaranjan
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This book has meticulous research in some of the very sensible and stirring areas of Plant Physiology-Plant Molecular Physiology are indispensably needed for holistic development of agriculture and crop production in different agroclimatic zones. It would be tremendously a productive reference book for acquiring advanced knowledge by post-graduate and Ph.D. scholars in response to the innovative courses in Plant Physiology, Plant Biochemistry, Plant Molecular Biology, Plant Biotechnology, Environmental Sciences, Plant Pathology, Microbiology, Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Botany.

Physiology of Crop Production

Author : N.K. Fageria
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This single volume explores the theoretical and the practical aspects of crop physiological processes around the world The marked decrease over the past century in the land available for crop production has brought about mounting pressure to increase crop yields, especially in developing nations. Physiology of Crop Production provides cutting-edge research and data for complete coverage of the physiology of crop production, all in one source, right at your fingertips. This valuable reference gives the extensive in-depth information soil and crop professionals need to maximize crop productivity anywhere the world. Leading soil and plant scientists and researchers clearly explain theory, practical applications, and the latest advances in the field. Crop physiology is a vital science needed to understand crop growth and development to facilitate increases of plant yield. Physiology of Crop Production presents a wide range of information and references from varying regions of the world to make the book as complete and broadly focused as possible. Discussion in each chapter is supported by experimental data to make this book a superb resource that will be used again and again. Chapter topics include plant and root architecture, growth and yield components, photosynthesis, source-sink relationship, water use efficiency, crop yield relative to water stress, and active and passive ion transport. Several figures and tables accompany the extensive referencing to provide a detailed, in-depth look at every facet of crop production. Physiology of Crop Production explores management strategies for: ideal plant architecture maximizing root systems ideal yield components maximizing photosynthesis maximizing source-sink relationship sequestration of carbon dioxide reducing the effects of drought improving N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S nutrition improving micronutrient uptake Physiology of Crop Production is an essential desktop resource for plant physiologists, soil and crop scientists, breeders, agronomists, agronomy administrators in agro-industry, educators, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students.

Terrestrial Global Productivity

Author : Jacques Roy
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As the global climate changes, there are concomitant changes in global biological productivity. This book is devoted to the assessment of terrestrial Net Primary Productivity ("the total amount of energy acquired by green plants during photosynthesis, minus the energy lost through respiration"--APDS&T, pp. 1457). The book is comprised of three major sections. The first section is a review of the processes that operate globally to influence productivity--these are the initial conditions of any model of primary productivity. The second section is comprised of chapters that assess the contribution of particular ecosystems to global productivity. The final major section contains chapters of a synthetic nature that describe attempts to model global productivity. This book should appeal to both ecologists and environmental scientists.

Crop Productivity

Author : BIOTOL (Project)
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The discussion of the quantitative aspects of assessing growth and yield provide the basis for discussing the internal and external (environmental) factors which influence crop productivity. The text examines the effects of both abiotic and biotic factors on crop yields and describes the issues involved in the production of crops in artificial environments. The diversification of crops, especially into the production of secondary products, is also described. The need for a cost effective training scheme for new and existing staff at all levels has been met by the University of Greenwich (formerly Thames Polytechnic) and the Open University of the Netherlands. As part of the European Community Education and Technology Training initiative (COMETT) and in conjunction with a number of other leading UK and European universities, they are developing BIOTOL, a training scheme in biotechnology using open learning materials, which will provide tailor-made courses, flexible in content, pace and place.

Symposium on Potential Productivity of Field Crops Under Different Environments

Author : W. H. Smith
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Effects of Ontogeny Water Stress and Temperature on Growth and Maintenance Respiration of Maize Ears in the Field

Author : Melissa Deanne Ho
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Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management

Author : J. J. Landsberg
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Forest management is a complex process that now incorporates information obtained from many sources. It is increasingly obvious that the physiological status of the trees in a forest has a dramatic impact on the likely success of any particular management strategy. Indeed, models described in this book that deal with forest productivity and sustainability require physiological information. This information can only be obtained from an understanding of the basic biological mechanisms and processes that contribute to individual tree growth. This valuable book illustrates that physiological ecology is a fundamental element of proficient forest management. Provides essential information relevant to the continuing debate over sustainable forest management Outlines how modern tools for physiological ecology can be used in planning and managing forest ecosystems Reviews the most commonly used forest models and assesses their value and future

The Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Species

Author : John Pernetta
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The Grass Crop

Author : M. Jones
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Grass is a very important world crop. In some countries, for example the UK, Australia and New Zealand, animal products from grassland make a greater contribution to the value of agricultural production than does any other crop. Yet research being undertaken to further· our understanding of the factors affecting the growth and productivity of grasslands has trailed in the shadow of the determined efforts made to improve our knowledge of cereals and, to a somewhat lesser extent, legumes. However, in spite of its low profile, grassland research has resulted in considerable advances in our knowledge in the last 20 years, and we feel that this book provides a timely opportunity to bring together some of this work in a review of what is primarily the ecophysiology of the temperate grass crop. Unlike other crops grown for their grain or vegatative parts, grass and grassland products are used almost entirely for the feeding of ruminant animals; the interaction of the sward and the animal thus adds an extra dimension to investigations of the productivity of grassland. No one author could adequately encompass the breadth of work covered in the book. Acknowledged experts have therefore been selected as contributors to provide an up-to-date review of their own specialized areas. Whilst multi author texts can cause problems of lack of uniformity of approach, each contributor has been made aware of the contents of the other chapters in an attempt both to provide continuity and to prevent glaring overlaps.

Korean Journal of Crop Science

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Maximizing Crop Yields

Author : N. K. Fageria
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Details the physiological, agronomical, and environmental factors needed to maintain or increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems. Addressed to scientists in the agriculture industry, and graduate and advanced undergraduate students, rather than to farmers. Explores the ba

Crop Ecology

Author : R. S. Loomis
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A detailed introduction to agricultural ecology with emphasis on productivity and systems concepts.

Crop Productivity and Solar Energy Utilization in Various Climates in Japan

Author : Yoshio Murata
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Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

Author :
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Plant Breeding and Whole system Crop Physiology

Author : D. H. Wallace
File Size : 44.37 MB
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Improvements in adaptation and maturity leading to greater yield are the most important criteria for the acceptance of a new crop cultivar, since it is the yield which dictates the economic value of the crop. Therefore, yield improvement is one goal of virtually every crop breeding program. Many such programs have tended to concentrate on identifying the genetic traits responsible for higher yield and selecting each of them in the later stages of the breeding cycle. However, selection for yield per se is still the most effective method, since it is a combination of traits, operating within the limits of the system, which finally determines yield. This book presents a whole-system, or holistic viewpoint for the improvement of adaptation, maturity and yield. Central to its thesis is recognition that system-established changes in levels of the components of the plant system, within a constant capacity, i.e. within the limitations of the system, determines yield and other cultivar characteristics. It goes on to describe how this can improve our understanding of plant systems and enable breeders to maximize performance under prevailing field conditions. Based principally on 25 years of research by the authors, the ideas presented in this book are essential reading for crop physiologists and plant breeders.

Bibliographic Index

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The Cumulative Book Index

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