Search results for: single-crystal-growth-of-semiconductors-from-metallic-solutions

Single Crystal Growth of Semiconductors from Metallic Solutions

Author : Sadik Dost
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Single Crystal Growth of Semiconductors from Metallic Solutions covers the four principal growth techniques currently in use for the growth of semiconductor single crystals from metallic solutions. Providing an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art of each, both experimentally and by numerical simulations. The importance of a close interaction between the numerical and experimental aspects of the processes is also emphasized. Advances in the fields of electronics and opto-electronics are hampered by the limited number of substrate materials which can be readily produced by melt-growth techniques such as the Czochralski and Bridgman methods. This can be alleviated by the use of alternative growth techniques, and in particular, growth from metallic solutions. The principal techniques currently in use are: Liquid Phase Epitaxy; Liquid Phase Electroepitaxy; the Travelling Heater Method, and; Liquid Phase Diffusion. Single Crystal Growth of Semiconductors from Metallic Solutions will serve as a valuable reference tool for researchers, and graduate and senior undergraduate students in the field of crystal growth. It covers most of the models developed in recent years. The detailed development of basic and constitutive equations and the associated interface and boundary conditions given for each technique will be very valuable to researchers for the development of their new models. * Describes the fundamentals of crystal growth modelling * Providing a state-of-the art description of the mathematical and experimental growth processes * Allows reader to gain clear insight into the practical and mathematical aspects of the topic

Liquid Phase Epitaxy of Electronic Optical and Optoelectronic Materials

Author : Peter Capper
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Liquid-Phase Epitaxy (LPE) is a technique used in the bulk growth of crystals, typically in semiconductor manufacturing, whereby the crystal is grown from a rich solution of the semiconductor onto a substrate in layers, each of which is formed by supersaturation or cooling. At least 50% of growth in the optoelectronics area is currently focussed on LPE. This book covers the bulk growth of semiconductors, i.e. silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium mercury telluride, indium phosphide, indium antimonide, gallium nitride, cadmium zinc telluride, a range of wide-bandgap II-VI compounds, diamond and silicon carbide, and a wide range of oxides/fluorides (including sapphire and quartz) that are used in many industrial applications. A separate chapter is devoted to the fascinating field of growth in various forms of microgravity, an activity that is approximately 30-years old and which has revealed many interesting features, some of which have been very surprising to experimenters and theoreticians alike. Covers the most important materials within the field The contributors come from a wide variety of countries and include both academics and industrialists, to give a balanced treatment Builds-on an established series known in the community Highly pertinent to current and future developments in telecommunications and computer-processing industries.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author : Tom Kuech
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Volume IIIA Basic Techniques Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIIA (Basic Techniques), edited by chemical and biological engineering expert Thomas F. Kuech, presents the underpinning science and technology associated with epitaxial growth as well as highlighting many of the chief and burgeoning areas for epitaxial growth. Volume IIIA focuses on major growth techniques which are used both in the scientific investigation of crystal growth processes and commercial development of advanced epitaxial structures. Techniques based on vacuum deposition, vapor phase epitaxy, and liquid and solid phase epitaxy are presented along with new techniques for the development of three-dimensional nano-and micro-structures. Volume IIIB Materials, Processes, and Technology Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIIB (Materials, Processes, and Technology), edited by chemical and biological engineering expert Thomas F. Kuech, describes both specific techniques for epitaxial growth as well as an array of materials-specific growth processes. The volume begins by presenting variations on epitaxial growth process where the kinetic processes are used to develop new types of materials at low temperatures. Optical and physical characterizations of epitaxial films are discussed for both in situ and exit to characterization of epitaxial materials. The remainder of the volume presents both the epitaxial growth processes associated with key technology materials as well as unique structures such as monolayer and two dimensional materials. Volume IIIA Basic Techniques Provides an introduction to the chief epitaxial growth processes and the underpinning scientific concepts used to understand and develop new processes. Presents new techniques and technologies for the development of three-dimensional structures such as quantum dots, nano-wires, rods and patterned growth Introduces and utilizes basic concepts of thermodynamics, transport, and a wide cross-section of kinetic processes which form the atomic level text of growth process Volume IIIB Materials, Processes, and Technology Describes atomic level epitaxial deposition and other low temperature growth techniques Presents both the development of thermal and lattice mismatched streams as the techniques used to characterize the structural properties of these materials Presents in-depth discussion of the epitaxial growth techniques associated with silicone silicone-based materials, compound semiconductors, semiconducting nitrides, and refractory materials

Radiation Ionization and Detection in Nuclear Medicine

Author : Tapan K. Gupta
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​ This book will serve as the definitive source of detailed information on radiation, ionization, and detection in nuclear medicine. It opens by considering fundamental aspects of nuclear radiation, including dose and energy, sources, and shielding. Subsequent chapters cover the full range of relevant topics, including the detection and measurement of radiation exposure (with detailed information on mathematical modelling); medical imaging; the different types of radiation detector and their working principles; basic principles of and experimental techniques for deposition of scintillating materials; device fabrication; the optical and electrical behaviors of radiation detectors; and the instrumentation used in nuclear medicine and its application. The book will be an invaluable source of information for academia, industry, practitioners, and researchers.

Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author : Govindhan Dhanaraj
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Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.

Generalized Models and Non classical Approaches in Complex Materials 2

Author : Holm Altenbach
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This book is the 2nd special volume dedicated to the memory of Gérard Maugin. Over 30 leading scientists present their contribution to reflect the vast field of scientific activity of Gérard Maugin. The topics of contributions employing often non-standard methods (generalized model) in this volume show the wide range of subjects that were covered by this exceptional scientific leader. The topics range from micromechanical basics to engineering applications, focusing on new models and applications of well-known models to new problems. They include micro-macro aspects, computational efforts, possibilities to identify the constitutive equations, and old problems with incorrect or non-satisfying solutions based on the classical continua assumptions.

SiGe Ge and Related Compounds 3 Materials Processing and Devices

Author : David Harame
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Advanced semiconductor technology is depending on innovation and less on "classical" scaling. SiGe, Ge, and Related Compounds have become a key component of the arsenal in improving semiconductor performance. This issue of ECS Transactions discusses the technology to form these materials, process them, FET devices incorporating them, Surfaces and Interfaces, Optoelectronic devices, and HBT devices.

III V Semiconductors

Author : Herbert C. Freyhardt
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Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, in conjunction with Springer-Verlag New York, is pleased to announce a new series: CRYSTALS Growth, Properties, and Applications The series presents critical reviews of recent developments in the field of crystal growth, properties, and applications. A substantial portion of the new series will be devoted to the theory, mechanisms, and techniques of crystal growth. Occasionally, clear, concise, complete, and tested instructions for growing crystals will be published, particularly in the case of methods and procedures that promise to have general applicability. Responding to the ever-increasing need for crystal substances in research and industry, appropriate space will be devoted to methods of crystal characterization and analysis in the broadest sense, even though reproducible results may be expected only when structures, microstructures, and composition are really known. Relations among procedures, properties, and the morphology of crystals will also be treated with reference to specific aspects of their practical application. In this way the series will bridge the gaps between the needs of research and industry, the pos sibilities and limitations of crystal growth, and the properties of crystals. Reports on the broad spectrum of new applications - in electronics, laser tech nology, and nonlinear optics, to name only a few - will be of interest not only to industry and technology, but to wider areas of applied physics as well and to solid state physics in particular. In response to the growing interest in and importance of organic crystals and polymers, they will also be treated.

Finite Difference Methods Theory and Applications

Author : Ivan Dimov
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This book constitutes the refereed conference proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Finite Difference Methods, FDM 2018, held in Lozenetz, Bulgaria, in June 2018.The 69 revised full papers presented together with 11 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 94 submissions. They deal with many modern and new numerical techniques like splitting techniques, Green’s function method, multigrid methods, and immersed interface method.

CdTe and Related Compounds Physics Defects Hetero and Nano structures Crystal Growth Surfaces and Applications

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Almost thirty years after the remarkable monograph of K. Zanio and the numerous conferences and articles dedicated since that time to CdTe and CdZnTe, after all the significant progresses in that field and the increasing interest in these materials for several extremely attractive industrial applications, such as nuclear detectors and solar cells, the edition of a new enriched and updated monograph dedicated to these two very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, covering all their most prominent, modern and fundamental aspects, seemed very relevant and useful. Detailed coverage of the main topics associated with the very topical II-VI semiconductor compound CdTe and its alloy CZT Review of the CdTe recent developments Fundamental background of many topics clearly introduced and exposed