Search results for: solar-ultraviolet-radiation

On the linkage of solar ultraviolet radiation to skin cancer

Author : Pythagoras Cutchis
File Size : 77.32 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 340
Read : 468
Download »

On the Linkage of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation to Skin Cancer

Author : Pythagoras Cutchis
File Size : 51.84 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 391
Read : 1156
Download »
The linkage of solar ultraviolet radiation to skin cancer is investigated in this paper by making comparisons of incidence rates in countries with predominantly white populations with respect to geographic, time, age, and anatomic site variations. It is concluded that the evidence in support of the hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation is a dominant factor in the induction of squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas is convincing. Many anomalies of various kinds are found in the hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation is a significant factor in the induction of malignant melanoma, leading to the conclusion that the primary cause(s) for this class of tumors must be sought elsewhere. Analysis of the data indicates that urbanization is an important factor in the etiology of basal cell carcinoma and, to a lesser degree, in the etiology of malignant melanoma. The biological amplification factor (ratio of percent increase in non-melanoma skin cancer incidence to percent increase in ultraviolet dose) is estimated to lie between 1 and 2. (Author).

Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Biogeochemical Dynamics in Aquatic Environments

Author : Neil V. Blough
File Size : 68.21 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 946
Read : 1073
Download »

Impacts of Fire and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Trace Gas Exchange in the Boreal Forest Biome

Author : Richard G. Zepp
File Size : 36.35 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 692
Read : 1126
Download »

Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in the Tibetan Plateau

Author : 诺桑
File Size : 86.61 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 516
Read : 1134
Download »

Biological Impacts of Increased Intensities of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author :
File Size : 56.64 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 260
Read : 1153
Download »

Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System

Author : M. Vázquez
File Size : 77.23 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 440
Read : 1204
Download »
In the history of science the opening up of a new observational or experimental window is always followed by an increase in knowledge of the subject concerned. This is also the case with the subject of this book, ultraviolet radiation (hereafter UV). In principle, the ultraviolet range might be just one more of these windows, of no particular importance. However, the energy per UV photon provides the main peculiarity, its magnitude being great enough to produce important ch- ical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, thereby a?ecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground. The Sun is the main natural source of UV radiation in the Solar System and our planet is the body where its in?uences can be best tested and the only one where its relation with life can be studied. However, the terrestrial atmosphere blocksmostofthephotonsinthiselectromagneticrangeandastronomershavehad to develop various techniques (balloons, planes and rockets) to cross this barrier and access the information. These tools have been used in parallel to investigate the physical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere and the interaction of its constituents with light. This book will addresses most of these topics.

The Molecular and Cellular Pathology of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author : R. M. Tyrrell
File Size : 85.31 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 945
Read : 1214
Download »

Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author : G. Seckmeyer
File Size : 47.3 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 806
Read : 730
Download »

Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author : Christos S. Zerefos
File Size : 68.73 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 962
Read : 551
Download »
Following the rapid developments in the UV-B measurement techniques and the rapidly growing research in the field in the late 80's and early 90's, we organized a large gathering of distinguished experts in a NATO Advanced Study Institute, held in Halkidiki, Greece on October, 2-11. 1995. The Institute was organized so as to include state of the art lectures on most aspects of solar ultraviolet radiation and its effects. This was achieved by extended lectures and discussions given in five sessions by 27 lecturers and a demonstration of filed measurements and calibration techniques at the end of the Institute. The ASI began with the sun and fundamentals on solar radiative emissions and their variability in time and continued with the interaction of solar Ultraviolet with the atmosphere through the complex scattering processes and photochemical reactions involved. Particular emphasis was given to changes in atmospheric composition imposed by different manifestations of the solar activity cycle. as well as on the modelling of radiative transfer through the atmosphere and the ocean under variable environmental conditions. Overviews on the ozone issue. its monitoring and variability were extensively discussed with emphasis on the observed acceleration of ozone decline in the early 90's. This acceleration had as a consequence, significant increases in UV-B radiation observed at a few world-wide distributed stations.

Stratospheric Ozone Reduction Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Plant Life

Author : Robert C. Worrest
File Size : 34.27 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 121
Read : 339
Download »
Inadvertent alterations of the earth's atmosphere by man's activities are now of regional and even global proportion. Increasing concern has been focused in the last decade on consequences of acid rain, carbon dioxide enrichment of the atmosphere and reduction of ozone in the upper atmosphere. The latter two problems are of truly global scale. This book focuses on the atmospheric ozone reduction problem and the potential consequences for plant life. unlike carbon dioxide enrichment, reduction of the total atmospheric ozone column has not yet taken place to a noticeable degree -- it is a problem of the future. The processes leading to ozone reduction involve time periods on the scale of decades. However, by the same token, if society finds ozone reduction to be unacceptable it will take even longer for the process to be reversed. Thus, anticipation of the consequences of ozone reduction is of obvious importance. Speculation of the possibility of ozone reduction first appeared in the early 1970's and was focused on the consequences of the injection of large quantities of nitrogen oxides into the upper atmosphere by supersonic aircraft flying at high altitudes. Other sources of nitrogen oxides originating from the earth's surface were also considered. With further refinement, the concerns of nitrogen oxide pollution of the upper atmosphere were diminished since the quantities likely to be involved were insufficient to cause a serious threat to the ozone layer.

The Role of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Marine Ecosystems

Author : John Calkins
File Size : 23.1 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 270
Read : 845
Download »
The inspiration for this monograph derived from the realization that human technical capacity has become so great that we can, even without malice, substantially modify and damage the gigantic and remote outer limit of our planet, the stratosphere. Above the atmosphere of our ordinary experience, the stratosphere is a tenuous layer of gas, blocked from rapid exchange with the troposphere, some twenty kilometers above the surface of the earth, seldom reached by humans, and yet a fragile shell which shields life on earth from a band of solar radiation of demonstrable injurious potential. It is immediately obvious that if stratospheric ozone were reduced and consequently the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface were increased, then human skin cancer, known to be related to solar ultraviolet exposure, would also be increased. But how does one even begin to estimate the impact of changed solar ultraviolet radiation on such a diverse. interacting, and complex ecosystem as the oceans? Studies which I conducted in Iceland focused on this question and were noted to the Marine Sciences Panel of the Scientific Affairs Committee of NATO by Professor Unnsteinn Stefansson, leading to a request to investigate the possibility of organizing a NATO sponsored Advanced Research Institute on this topic.

Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Author :
File Size : 47.41 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 506
Read : 1095
Download »

Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 79.88 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 569
Read : 660
Download »

An Epidemiological Investigation Into the Influence of Solar Ultraviolet B Radiation on Human Blood Pressure

Author : Louise Ann Catling
File Size : 73.54 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 678
Read : 753
Download »

Environmental UV Radiation Impact on Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models

Author : Francesco Ghetti
File Size : 46.43 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 831
Read : 1124
Download »
This publication originates from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Environmental Radiation: Impact on Ecosystems and Human Health and Predictive Models, held in Pisa, Italy, in June 2001. The book offers not only basic information on the action mechanisms of UV radiation on ecosystems and various biological systems, but also a picture of the possible scenarios of the long-term global increase of environmental UV radiation, with emphasis on the research aspects aimed at the proper quantitative assessment of risk factors and the formulation of reliable predictive models. The purpose of the authors is to present a critical discussion on how changes in UV radiation will affect ecosystems and the biological processes needed to sustain life on Earth and to provide useful hints for future actions of governmental and international agencies, as well as non-governmental organizations. The book is structured in four sections: the first one is devoted to a general overview of the consequences of ozone depletion and to the basic concepts of radiation measurements and monitoring; the other three sections are devoted to the effects on plants, aquatic ecosystems and human health.

Ultraviolet uv Radiation Measurement in Africa

Author : Gemechu Fanta
File Size : 72.49 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 271
Read : 677
Download »
Surface solar ultraviolet radiation measurement is uneasy task due to the characteristics of the determining factors like aerosol, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone and precipitation. We found this study important for travelers, tourists, industries, infrastructure builders, farmers, health practitioners and radiation researchers for ultraviolet radiation in excess affects health (causes skin cancer and eye disease called cataract), infrastructure, yield of crops, and service time of industrial products. In this research, different models have been devised that have considered the effects of those factors in the continent of Africa. Based on our models, ozone has the highest contribution for the increase or decrease of surface UV, clouds have moderate contribution and aerosols have the least contribution. The amount of skin burning UV (erythermal UV) in Africa is high. According to the world standard the possible ranges of erythermal UV is from 4 to 9 in UV index (UVI) (Moderate to High).

Sun Protection in Man

Author : P.U. Giacomoni
File Size : 48.95 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 290
Read : 765
Download »
"Sun Protection in Man" looks at the beneficial and harmful effects of solar radiation. The physiological consequences of sun exposure have been systematically studied starting at the end of the nineteenth century and we now have accumulated knowledge about how Caucasian and Asian skins reacts to solar radiation. The chemical effects of solar ultraviolet radiation have been analyzed with particular emphasis during the second half of the twentieth century. Research on micro-organisms has allowed us to understand the mechanisms of UV-induced mutagenesis and photosensitization. Studies with laboratory rodents have opened the path to the understanding of UV-induced immune-depression, carcinogenesis, photo-damage and photo-aging. The results of these studies have enabled other scientists to investigate the same phenomena in human organs such as the skin and the eye. UV radiation damages hair, as well. The present knowledge in these fields is summarized in some of the chapters of this monograph. Mass phenomenon in Europe with the generalization of summer vacations which were a consequence of social reforms introducing the concept of "paid vacations". This created a need for protection and opened a market for sunscreens. This monograph is concerned with sun protection as a whole and is not just "another book on sunscreens". Nonetheless, in these days of general concern, it is important to learn about the efficiency of sunscreens. Several authors discuss how to reduce the number of impinging photons and explain why sunscreens seem to offer less protection than expected. Guidelines are given on how to use sunscreens in everyday life, which are expressed rigorously though clearly, for access to the common reader. Our knowledge on the relationship between sun and humans is at the early stages of development. Industrial and commercial activities are concerned by the development of this knowledge, and rules have been and will be promulgated to guarantee efficacy and safety of sun-products. It is hoped that this monograph will be of interest to the scholar, the layman and the legislator.

Measurements of Ultraviolet Radiation in the United States and Comparison with Skin Cancer Data

Author : Joseph Scotto
File Size : 32.75 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 756
Read : 517
Download »

GB T 18830 2009 Translated English of Chinese Standard GBT 18830 2009 GB T18830 2009 GBT18830 2009

Author : www.ChineseStandard.net
File Size : 71.57 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 637
Read : 1166
Download »
This standard specifies the test method for the solar UV radiation protective properties of textiles, as well as the presentation, evaluation and marking of the level of protection.