Search results for: supercontinent

Supercontinent

Author : Ted Nield
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The shifting continents of the Earth are heading for inevitable collision: 250 million years from now, all the land masses on this planet will come together in a single, gigantic supercontinent which no human is ever likely to see. That future supercontinent will not be the first to form on Earth, nor will it be the last. Each cycle lasts half a billion years, making it the grandest of all the patterns in nature. It is scarcely a century since science first understood how Pangaea, the supercontinent which gave birth to dinosaurs, split apart, but scientists can now look back three-quarters of a billion years into the Earth's almost indecipherable past to reconstruct Pangaea's predecessor, and computer-model the shape of the Earth's far-distant future. Ted Nield's book tells the astounding story of how that science emerged (often in the face of fierce opposition), and how scientists today are using the most modern techniques to draw information out of the oldest rocks on Earth. It also reveals the remarkable human story of the Altantis-seeking visionaries and madmen who have been imagining lost or undiscovered continents for centuries. Ultimately all supercontinents exist only in the human imagination, but understanding the 'Supercontinent Cycle' represents nothing less than finally knowing how our planet works.

Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History

Author : Z.X. Li
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The supercontinent-cycle hypothesis attributes planetary-scale episodic tectonic events to an intrinsic self-organizing mode of mantle convection, governed by the buoyancy of continental lithosphere that resists subduction during the closure of old ocean basins, and the consequent reorganization of mantle convection cells leading to the opening of new ocean basins. Characteristic timescales of the cycle are typically 500 to 700 million years. Proposed spatial patterns of cyclicity range from hemispheric (introversion) to antipodal (extroversion), to precisely between those end members (orthoversion). Advances in our understanding can arise from theoretical or numerical modelling, primary data acquisition relevant to continental reconstructions, and spatiotemporal correlations between plate kinematics, geodynamic events and palaeoenvironmental history. The palaeogeographic record of supercontinental tectonics on Earth is still under development. The contributions in this Special Publication provide snapshots in time of these investigations and indicate that Earth’s palaeogeographic record incorporates elements of all three end-member spatial patterns.

Supercontinents

Author : Source Wikipedia
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 36. Chapters: Afro-Eurasia, Afro-Eurasia-America, Amasia (continent), Americas, Columbia (supercontinent), Euramerica, Gondwana, Great Lakes tectonic zone, Kenorland, Laurasia, List of supercontinents, Nena (supercontinent), Novopangaea, Pangaea Ultima, Pannotia, Rodinia, Supercontinent cycle, Ur (continent), Vaalbara.

Antarctica and Supercontinent Evolution

Author : S.L. Harley
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Antarctica preserves a rock record that spans three and a half billion years of history and has a remarkable story to tell about the evolution of our Earth, from the hottest crustal rocks yet found in an orogenic system, to the assembly and breakup of Gondwana in the Phanerozoic. This volume highlights our improved understanding of the tectonic events that have shaped Antarctica and how these potentially relate to supercontinent assembly and fragmentation. The internal constitution of the East Antarctic Shield is assessed using information available from the basement geology and from detritus preserved as Mesozoic sediments in the Trans Antarctic Mountains. Accretionary orogenesis along the proto-Pacific margin of Antarctica is examined and the volumes of intracrustal melting compared with juvenile magma additions in these complex orogenic systems assessed. This special volume demonstrates the diversity of approaches required to elucidate and understand crustal evolution and evaluate the supercontinent concept.

Supercontinents

Author : Books, LLC
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 34. Chapters: Americas, Supercontinent, Rodinia, Laurasia, Great Lakes tectonic zone, Pangaea, Gondwana, Eurasia, Supercontinent cycle, Columbia, Vaalbara, Kenorland, Pangaea Ultima, Afro-Eurasia, Pannotia, South China, List of supercontinents, Euramerica, Amasia, East Tasman Plateau, Novopangaea, Nena. Excerpt: The Americas, or America (Spanish: , Portuguese: , French: , Quechua: , Guaran: , Aymara: , Dutch: ), are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions while the singular form America is primarily used to refer to the United States of America. The Americas cover 8.3% of the Earth's total surface area (28.4% of its land area) and contain about 13.5% of the human population (about 900 million people). CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000-17,000 years ago, when sea levels were significantly lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific Northwest coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Archaeologists contend that Paleo-Indians migration...

Continents and Supercontinents

Author : John J. W. Rogers
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To this day, there is a great amount of controversy about where, when and how the so-called supercontinents--Pangea, Godwana, Rodinia, and Columbia--were made and broken. Continents and Supercontinents frames that controversy by giving all the necessary background on how continental crust is formed, modified, and destroyed, and what forces move plates. It also discusses how these processes affect the composition of seawater, climate, and the evolution of life. Rogers and Santosh begin with a survey of plate tectonics, and go on to describe the composition, production, and destruction of continental and oceanic crust, and show that cratons or assemblies of cratons became the first true continents, approximately one billion years after the earliest continental crust evolved. The middle part of the book concentrates on supercontinents, beginning with a discussion of types of orogenic belts, distinguishing those that formed by closure of an ocean basin within the belt and those that formed by intracontinental deformation caused by stresses generated elsewhere. This information permits discrimination between models of supercontinent formation by accretion of numerous small terranes and by reorganization of large old continental blocks. This background leads to a description of the assembly and fragmentation of supercontinents throughout earth history. The record is most difficult to interpret for the oldest supercontinent, Columbia, and also controversial for Rodinia, the next youngest supercontinent. The configurations and pattern of breakup of Gondwana and Pangea are well known, but some aspects of their assembly are unclear. The book also briefly describes the histories of continents after the breakup of Pangea, and discusses how changes in the composition of seawater, climate, and life may have been affected by the sizes and locations of continents and supercontinents.

Gondwana Nine

Author :
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Palaeoproterozoic Supercontinents and Global Evolution

Author : Steven Michael Reddy
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The Palaeoproterozoic era (2500-1600 Ma) is a critical period of Earth history, with dynamic evolution from the deep planetary interior to its surface environment. Several lines of geological evidence suggest the existence of at least one pre-Rodinia supercontinent, named Nuna or Columbia, which formed near the end of Palaeoproterozoic time. Prior to this assembly, there may have been an older supercontinent (Kenorland) or perhaps only independently drifting supercratons. The tectonic records of amalgamation and dispersal of these ancient landmasses provide a framework that links processes of the deep Earth with those of its fluid envelope. The sixteen papers in this volume present reviews and new analytical data that span the geological record of Palaeoproterozoic Earth. The volume is useful as a reference book for students and professional geoscientists interested in this important period of global evolution.

Historical Geology

Author : Reed Wicander
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HISTORICAL GEOLOGY: EVOLUTION OF EARTH AND LIFE THROUGH TIME, THIRD EDITION, teaches students the basic principles of the physical and biological events of Earth's history, as well as how scientists apply these principles to unravel the history of Earth. Authors Wicander and Monroe present a balanced overview of both the geological and biological history of the Earth as a continuum of inter-related events. These events reflect the underlying principles and processes that have shaped our planet. The authors also explain the historical development of these basic principles and processes, and their importance in deciphering the history of Earth. Three major themes - time, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics - are woven throughout the book. These themes help readers link what may seem like unrelated material and are essential for understanding historical geology. Included with every new copy of this edition is In-TERRA-Active(tm) 2.0 CD-ROM.

Geology and Evolution of the Indian Plate

Author : S. Mahmood Naqvi
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With reference to South Asia and Indian Ocean.

Gondwana Research

Author :
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Proterozoic East Gondwana

Author : Masaru Yoshida
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Plate Tectonics

Author : Arthur Newell Strahler
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Origin and Evolution of Continents

Author : Yoichi Motoyoshi
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Digging for Clues

Author : Anonimo
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Origin and Evolution of Earth

Author : Kent C. Condie
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Examples are the nature of Earth's oldest rocks, the origin of continents, extraterrestrial impact and mass extinctions of organisms, rates of organic evolution, and recent developments on the origin of humans.

Memoir

Author :
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Contributed articles.

Scientific American

Author :
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Monthly magazine devoted to topics of general scientific interest.

Physical Geology

Author : David McGeary
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Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy

Author : Indian National Science Academy
File Size : 44.71 MB
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