Search results for: temporal-variations-of-the-cardiovascular-system

Temporal Variations of the Cardiovascular System

Author : Thomas F.H. Schmidt
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Although it is widely recognized that there are significant variations in the circulation throughout the 24-hour day, these patterns have often been conceived as nuisance variables rather than functional differences. Responses of the circulation are examined here not as stable phenomena, but as integrated functions highly sensitive to environmental conditions, and driven by internal and external pacesetters. In this volume, cardiologists with a primary interest in hypertension or heart disease, chronobiologists, and psychologists join together for the first time to give the reader the opportunity to learn the extent and clinical significance of these changes from a chronobiological, behavioral and physiological perspective.

Temporal Variations of the Cardiovascular System

Author : Thomas F.H. Schmidt
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Although it is widely recognized that there are significant variations in the circulation throughout the 24-hour day, these patterns have often been conceived as nuisance variables rather than functional differences. Responses of the circulation are examined here not as stable phenomena, but as integrated functions highly sensitive to environmental conditions, and driven by internal and external pacesetters. In this volume, cardiologists with a primary interest in hypertension or heart disease, chronobiologists, and psychologists join together for the first time to give the reader the opportunity to learn the extent and clinical significance of these changes from a chronobiological, behavioral and physiological perspective.

Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology

Author : André Aubert
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In 1992, clinical cardiac electrophysiology became a recognized sub-speciality of the American Board of Internal Medicine. The formal recognition of this highly specialized and technical field of medicine represents the culmination of thirty years of remarkable scientific and intellectual discovery. Beginning in the 1950s, cardiologists realized that cardiac arrhythmias were the cause of significant morbidity and the sudden death of at least 350,000 patients every year in the United States alone. At that time the only tools available for analyzing abnormal heart rhythms were the standard EKG machine and careful deductive reasoning. During the early 1960s, cardiac pacemakers reflected the first foray in the electrical therapy of cardiac arrhythmias. Pacemakers were first implanted in order to control syncopal episodes related to bradycardic heart rhythms. Although crude and bulky devices, their utility was immediately obvious to physicians and patients alike. The recognition that electrical signals could be recorded from inside the heart and that the heart's rhythm could be controlled by the application of electrical energy began the era of clinical cardiac electrophysiology which was to follow. In the late 1960s and early 1970s and at the peak of the Vietnam conflict. a group of cardiologists with special training in cardiac electrophysiology were sequestered at the US Public Health Service Hospital at Staten Island.

Physiology and Pharmacology of Biological Rhythms

Author : Peter H. Redfern
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Measured by any criteria, research in chronobiology in general and chronopharmacology in particular has expanded rapidly in recent years. This expansion has been paralleled by an increasing recognition by those outside the field of the relevance and significance of recent developments in chronobiology. Advances in two areas have been chiefly responsible. First, application of the full range of modern techniques in behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of basic clock mechanisms. In several species the genetic basis of the circadian clock is being progressively delineated. A complete picture of the neurochemical and neuroanatomical structure of the mammalian clock is emerging and the complex pattern of control mechanisms involving endogenous clock mechan isms and photic and nonphotic zeitgebers is being built up as a result of behavioral studies. Secondly, in parallel with these exciting developments in basic science, clinical applications are being convincingly demonstrated in the general fields of pharmacology and medicine as well as in specific areas, e.g., jet lag, shiftwork maladaption syndrome, blindness, and cardiovascular system. It is therefore an opportune time to review progress in the field of chronopharmacology and to introduce some of the exciting developments and prospects to a readership beyond the confines of the chronobiological cognoscenti. This volume is therefore aimed primarily at the pharmacologist - whether basic, applied, or clinical-who is not a specialist in chronobiology.

Computer Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals

Author : M. Di Rienzo
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CHAPTER 17: Respiratory Pattern, Invested Effort, and Variability in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure During the Performance of Mental Tasks -- CHAPTER 18: Power Spectra of Blood Pressure in Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Relationship with Sympathetic Cardiovascular Control -- CHAPTER 19: Sympathectomy, Sinoaortic Denervation and Spectral Powers of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Lyon Rats -- CHAPTER 20: Heart Rate Variability in Chronic Heart Failure -- CHAPTER 21: Spectral Analysis of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Patients with Myocardial Infarction -- CHAPTER 22: Heart Rate Variability and Sudden Death: What's the Connection? -- CHAPTER 23: Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate in Diabetic. Patients: A Marker of Autonomic Dysfunction -- References -- Author Index

Blood Pressure Monitoring in Cardiovascular Medicine and Therapeutics

Author : William B. White
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This is a newly updated second edition of Blood Pressure Monitoring in Cardiovascular Medicine and Therapeutics. William B. White, MD, and a panel of highly experienced clinicians critically review every aspect of out-of-office evaluation of blood pressure. The world-class opinion leaders writing here describe the significant advances in our understanding of the circadian pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders.

Advances in Medical Biology

Author : C. Baya
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This text presents the final reports of the 17 research groups supervised by the CEC programme COMAC-BIOLOGY, relating applications such as: standardization of diagnostic procedures; application of new biological techniques to health problems; sharing of technologies and reagents; provision of special biological systems; evaluation of effectiveness of measures aiming at health care; and collection, storage and dissemination of information.

Heart Brain Interactions

Author : Giuseppe Di Pasquale
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In the last decade there has been a growing interest in the study of the interactions between the heart and the brain, especially in the field of cerebral ischemia. The interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are of relevance not only for research investigation, but also for clinical implications in the daily clinical practice. i.e. A wealth of information has been gathered particularly on three topics, cardiovascular consequences of cerebral injuries, cardioembolic stroke, and association of carotid and coronary artery disease. The available information, however, is still sparse and fragmentary mainly because of the lack of commun ication between neurologists and cardiologists. With the aim of improving communication between several disciplines and technologies, we started to organize since 1987 in Bologna, Italy, an international Symposium on heart brain interactions to be held every 3 years. Our intention was to gather prominent clinicians and researchers from outstanding cardiologic and neuro logic institutions actively involved in the study of heart-brain interactions. The ambitious goal has been to fit different pieces of information like in a puzzle. This book originates from the contributions presented at the 2nd Sympo sium which was held in Bologna on November 30-December 1, 1990. The book is subdivided into three sections: I cardiovascular consequences of cerebral damage, II cardiogenic cerebral ischemia, III cerebrovascular and coronary artery disease.

Cardiovascular Reactivity and Stress

Author : J. Rick Turner
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This book is an articulate, concise, contemporary introduction to the study of important variables underlying cardiovascular reactivity. Its strength is in the combination of a scholarly but nonpedantic approach to cardiovascular psychophysiology and a solid understanding of be havioral medicine approaches to the study of hypertension. The topics covered are central to the study of relationships between behavior and cardiovascular reactivity; the list of suggested readings at the end of each chapter provides excellent guidance for more detailed study of specific issues. It has now been more than a dozen years since Plenum Press published Paul Obrist's seminal monograph Cardiovascular Psycho physiology. The volume had a major impact in relating cardiovascular regulation to behaving individuals and in developing thoughtful hy potheses concerning such factors as they might pertain to hypertension. The impact of that work extended across scientific disciplines as well as aross continents. At the time the Obrist book was published, a young psychologist, J. Rick Turner, was completing his Ph. D. thesis in psychol ogy at the University of Birmingham, England, on heart rate reactions to psychological challenge. After continued collaboration for the next several years with his former Ph. D. mentor, Douglas Carroll, Turner joined the Obrist laboratory at the University of North Carolina. Al though Obrist unfortunately died during Turner's tenure in the labora tory, collaboration continued with Kathleen Light and Andrew Sher wood. The enlightened legacy of the North Carolina laboratory can clearly be seen in this text.

Cutting the Cost of Cold

Author : Fergus Nicol
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Academics and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines provide a survey of research into buildings epidemiology and medical issues, followed by an assessment of the tools available to the practitioner.