Search results for: the-modocs-and-their-war

The Modocs and Their War

Author : Keith A. Murray
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Along the shores of Tule Lake in northern California, three small bands of Modoc Indians joined forces in the fall and winter of 1872-73 to hold off more than one thousand U.S. soldiers and settlers trying to dislodge them from their ancient refuge in the lava beds.

The Modoc War 1872 73

Author : Erwin N. Thompson
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Remembering the Modoc War

Author : Boyd Cothran
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On October 3, 1873, the U.S. Army hanged four Modoc headmen at Oregon's Fort Klamath. The condemned had supposedly murdered the only U.S. Army general to die during the Indian wars of the nineteenth century. Their much-anticipated execution marked the end of the Modoc War of 1872–73. But as Boyd Cothran demonstrates, the conflict's close marked the beginning of a new struggle over the memory of the war. Examining representations of the Modoc War in the context of rapidly expanding cultural and commercial marketplaces, Cothran shows how settlers created and sold narratives of the conflict that blamed the Modocs. These stories portrayed Indigenous people as the instigators of violence and white Americans as innocent victims. Cothran examines the production and circulation of these narratives, from sensationalized published histories and staged lectures featuring Modoc survivors of the war to commemorations and promotional efforts to sell newly opened Indian lands to settlers. As Cothran argues, these narratives of American innocence justified not only violence against Indians in the settlement of the West but also the broader process of U.S. territorial and imperial expansion.

The Modoc War

Author : Robert Aquinas McNally
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On a cold, rainy dawn in late November 1872, Lieutenant Frazier Boutelle and a Modoc Indian nicknamed Scarface Charley leveled firearms at each other. Their duel triggered a war that capped a decades-long genocidal attack that was emblematic of the United States’ conquest of Native America’s peoples and lands. Robert Aquinas McNally tells the wrenching story of the Modoc War of 1872–73, one of the nation’s costliest campaigns against North American Indigenous peoples, in which the army placed nearly one thousand soldiers in the field against some fifty-five Modoc fighters. Although little known today, the Modoc War dominated national headlines for an entire year. Fought in south-central Oregon and northeastern California, the war settled into a siege in the desolate Lava Beds and climaxed the decades-long effort to dispossess and destroy the Modocs. The war did not end with the last shot fired, however. For the first and only time in U.S. history, Native fighters were tried and hanged for war crimes. The surviving Modocs were packed into cattle cars and shipped from Fort Klamath to the corrupt, disease-ridden Quapaw reservation in Oklahoma, where they found peace even more lethal than war. The Modoc War tells the forgotten story of a violent and bloody Gilded Age campaign at a time when the federal government boasted officially of a “peace policy” toward Indigenous nations. This compelling history illuminates a dark corner in our country’s past.

The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars 1607 1890

Author : Spencer Tucker
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This encyclopedia provides a broad, in-depth, and multidisciplinary look at the causes and effects of warfare between whites and Native Americans, encompassing nearly three centuries of history.

The Modoc War in the Lava Beds

Author : Mark Berhow
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The six-month war is a classic case study of the cultural conflicts that made up the North American Indian wars. It has the distinction of being the most costly Indian war fought by the United States Army; considering the shortness of the war and the number of Indians involved. It was also the only Indian War in which a general grade officer was killed. It highlighted the deficiencies of the post Civil War Army- a motley crew of badly trained soldiers led by equally poorly trained officers, who fought on battlefields of the Indian's choosing and about which the Army had absolutely no information what so ever. At the end of the war there were over 1000 soldiers hunting down 160 Modocs, of which there was not more than 60 effective fighting men. The Modocs are gone from Lava Beds, but they are not forgotten. The land they fought for was a wild landscape of lava flows, caves and cinder cones. Today the area is preserved as Lava Beds National Monument.

Modoc War

Author : Erwin N. Thompson
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This is an excellent brief narrative of the military campaign during the war between the Modoc Indians of Northern California and Southern Oregon and units of the U.S. Army during 1872 & 1873. The author provides a high level of detail on the troop movements, units, and soldiers involved. The text is complemented by a number of appendices, and excellent set of maps, and a number of photographs.

The Center of the World the Edge of the World

Author : Frederick L. Brown
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Eyewitnesses to the Indian Wars 1865 1890

Author : Peter Cozzens
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Second in five-volume series recreates the military struggle for the American West in the words of the soldiers, noncombatants, and Native Americans.

A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest

Author : Robert H. Ruby
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Over the centuries the Indians of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana have adapted their lifeways to their region’s radically different environments-an evolution that in some tribes continues to this day, as they conform to the demands of contemporary American society.