Search results for: the-origin-of-chirality-in-the-molecules-of-life

The Origin of Chirality in the Molecules of Life

Author : Albert Guijarro
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Few times an unsolved issue in science has dealt with a larger number of approaches or theories intending to shed light on it and few times this has been done from so different, often orthogonal perspectives. This book covers a hot topic, one of the unsolved problems not just in chemistry, but in science.

The Origin of Chirality in the Molecules of Life

Author : Albert Guijarro
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Completely revised and updated, this book covers a hot topic and one of the unsolved problems not just in chemistry, but in all science. It condenses a large and very disperse number of contributions from almost every field, organized, interrelated and explained in a unified way. Structured to be amenable for both researchers and for educational purposes, this book covers fundamental aspects while maintaining a comprehensive overview. Highly illustrated throughout, the book provides a clear review of many interdisciplinary subjects treated in the book.

Chirality and Life

Author : Rolf M. Flügel
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This book presents the fascinating formation of the first simple bioorganic molecules and describes the hidden aspects of chiral compounds, which raise questions on the molecular beginnings of life. The occurrences of extraterrestrial, non-standard amino acids in meteorites are dealt with in detail, as well as their subsequent transfer to proteinogenic amino acids. The concept of asymmetric organo-catalysis for the synthesis of carbohydrates and ribonucleosides are considered. The notion of a single amino acid that functions as an enzyme is developed. Attempts to simulate ancient world scenarios are critically reviewed. There is a special focus on ribozymes and the resulting RNA world. Combinations of different world scenarios are discussed in view of an on-going evolution. The currently most plausible hypotheses and visions of ancient world scenarios that led to today’s DNA world are also provided. Included is a pre-cellular world of viruses that is presented for the first time.

Modern Physical Organic Chemistry

Author : Eric V. Anslyn
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Making explicit the connections between physical organic chemistry and critical fields such as organometallic chemistry, materials chemistry, bioorganic chemistry and biochemistry, this book escorts the reader into an area that has been thoroughly updated in recent times.

Chemical Evolution Origin Of Life

Author : Julian Chela-Flores, PhD
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This book addresses some important open questions in this interdisciplinary field of research. In spite of its broad scope, ranging from the earliest evidence of life on earth to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, the main focus is on chemical evolution. Once the macromolecules of life were formed, the evolution of the earliest life forms enhanced the importance of chirality. This led to the highly asymmetric environment of the macromolecules of the living cell the hallmark of life itself. The subject of chirality, in particular, is discussed in depth: the status of the weak force as the only true chiral influence is presented. A substantial number of papers review both the theoretical as well as the experimental basis of the origin of biochirality. A second broad area discussed in detail is the RNA world. Some successes of this hypothesis are highlighted; the hierarchy of previous evolutionary stages leading to the origin of life, such as the pyrophosphate world, are considered. The question is raised whether useful hints may still be inferred from molecular fossils existing in contemporary cells. Contents The Origin, Evolution, and Distribution of Life in the Universe C. Ponnamperuma Chemical Origin and Early Evolution of Biological Energy Conversion H. Baltscheffsky Phosphate in Models for Chemical Evolution G. Arrhenius, B. Gedulin and Mojzsis Evolution in an RNA World P. Schuster Small Pathogenic RNAs of Plants: Living Fossils of the RNA World? T.O. Diener The Weak Force and the Origin of Life A.J. MacDermott The Origin of Chirality, the Role of Phase Transitions and Their Induction in Amino Acids A. Salam Spontaneous Regulating Mechanisms That May Have Led to the Origin of Life J. Chela-Flores Chirality and the Origin of Life R. Navarro Gonzalez, R.K. Khanna and C. Ponnamperuma >Search for Phase Transitions Changing Molecular Chirality A. Figureau, E. Duval and A. Boukenter Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Possibility of Chirality Dependent Time Direction in Molecules A.S. Garay Extraterrestrial Intelligences J. Heidmann Discussion Sessions Biochemical Markers in Precambian Sediments--Indian Subcontinent S.S. Rane, A.V. Patankar, M.S. Chadha, B. Udayraj and S.M. Naqvi Practicabilities and Limits of Stereospecific Autocatalysis: An Experimental Approach T. Buhse, W. Thiemann, D. Lavabre and J.-C. Micheau Ionizing Radiation and Chemical Processing of Waters on Early Earth I.G. Draganic and S.I. Vujosevic Chemical Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Sonic Energy in the Context of Chemical Evolution A. Negron-Mendoza and G. Albarran Differences in Radiolysis Behavior of D,L-Amino Acid in Primary Stage and Thermodynamic Equilibrium State W.Q. Wang, J.L. Wu and J. Jiang Experimental Searches for the Origin of Biomolecular Asymmetry L. Keszthelyi True and False Chirality L.D. Barron Chiral Interaction and Biomolecular Evolution G. Gilat Chiral Forces and Molecular Dissymmetry R. Mohan Viroids and Viruses at the Origin of Organized Life L.J. Boya and P. Boya The Role of Neoteny and Sociogenesis in the Evolution of Cell Structure V.J.A. Novak

Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life

Author : Uwe Meierhenrich
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"How did life originate and why were left-handed molecules selected for its architecture?" This question of high public and interdisciplinary scientific interest is the central theme of this book. It is widely known that in processes triggering the origin of life on Earth, the equal occurrence, the parity between left-handed amino acids and their right-handed mirror images, was violated. The balance was inevitably tipped to the left – as a result of which life's proteins today exclusively implement the left form of amino acids. Written in an engaging style, this book describes how the basic building blocks of life, the amino acids, formed. After a comprehensible introduction to stereochemistry, the author addresses the inherent property of amino acids in living organisms, namely the preference for left-handedness. What was the cause for the violation of parity of amino acids in the emergence of life on Earth? All the fascinating models proposed by physicists, chemists and biologist are vividly presented including the scientific conflicts. The author describes the attempt to verify any of those models with the chirality module of the ROSETTA mission, a probe built and launched with the mission to land on a comet and analyse whether there are chiral organic compounds that could have been brought to the Earth by cometary impacts. A truly interdisciplinary astrobiology book, "Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life" will fascinate students, researchers and all readers with backgrounds in natural sciences. With a foreword by Henri B. Kagan.

Possible Scenarios for Homochirality on Earth

Author : Michiya Fujiki
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In 1978, Fred Hoyle proposed that interstellar comets carrying several viruses landed on Earth as part of the panspermia hypotheses. With respect to life, the origin of homochirality on Earth has been the greatest mystery because life cannot exist without molecular asymmetry. Many scientists have proposed several possible hypotheses to answer this long-standing L-D question. Previously, Martin Gardner raised the question about mirror symmetry and broken mirror symmetry in terms of the homochirality question in his monographs (1964 and 1990). Possible scenarios for the L-D issue can be categorized into (i) Earth and exoterrestrial origins, (ii) by-chance and necessity mechanisms, and (iii) mirror-symmetrical and non-mirror-symmetrical forces as physical and chemical origins. These scenarios should involve further great amplification mechanisms, enabling a pure L- or D-world.

Mirror Image Asymmetry

Author : James P. Riehl
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An overview of the importance and consequences of asymmetry from molecules to the macroscopic world As scientists have become more capable of probing the structure of three-dimensional objects at the molecular level, the need to understand the concept and the consequences of mirror-image asymmetry—chirality—has increased enormously. Written at an introductory level, Mirror-Image Asymmetry provides an overview of the importance and effects of asymmetry from the atomic and molecular world of physics and chemistry to the organisms and structures that we see and use in our everyday life. The reader will develop a broad appreciation of three-dimensional asymmetry from the microscopic molecular world to the macroscopic world of handedness, automobile driving, windmills, sports, and similar phenomena. The book features: An introduction to basic definitions and the nomenclature of asymmetric and dissymmetric molecules Up-to-date examples of the importance and consequences of asymmetry in modern drug applications, current theories of the origin of asymmetry in nature, and examples of molecular asymmetry in smell, taste, and insect communication Many illustrations, chemical structures, and photographs that enable the reader to connect the actual asymmetrical structures to the different phenomena that depend on structural asymmetry In the 150 years since Louis Pasteur discovered asymmetry in molecular structures, scientists have made great progress in understanding how interactions between chiral molecules influence biochemical processes. This knowledge is leading to very sophisticated asymmetric synthetic techniques that have greatly benefitted many research groups especially those in the pharmaceutical industry. This guide to the role of molecular and macroscopic chirality will inspire students and scientists in chemistry, biology, physics, and drug discovery.

Select Topics in the PHYSICS OF THE ORIGIN OF LIFE

Author : V. Alexander Stefan
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the origin-of-life problem and the proteinoid theory molecular biology and the reconstruction of microbial phylogenies: des liaisons dangereuses? prebiotic chirality and life concentration and organization of precursors at inorganic interplayers and interfaces THE CHEMICAL ORIGINS OF LIFE AND MIND symmetry breaking and the origin of life THE WEAK FORCE AND SETH: THE SEARCH FOR EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL HOMOCHIRALITY COMMUNICATION BETWEEN ACTION AND REACTION UNDERLYING THE PHYSICAL ORIGIN OF LIFE randomness, determinism, and evolution

The Physical Origin of Homochirality in Life

Author : David Cline
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Annotation Papers from the February 1995 conference explore questions of the necessity of homochiral structure, the homochiral prebiotic medium hypothesis, the potential of homochirality to be used as a signature for existing or previous living systems beyond Earth, and experiments seeking to clarify the origin of homochirality. Contains sections on historical perspective, homochirality and life, models of physical chiral symmetry breaking, and future tests. For chemists, chemical physicists, and astrophysicists. No index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Stardust Supernovae and the Molecules of Life

Author : Richard Boyd
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Where were the amino acids, the molecules of life, created: perhaps in a lightning storm in the early Earth, or perhaps elsewhere in the cosmos? This book argues that at least some of them must have been produced in the cosmos, and that the fact that the Earthly amino acids have a specific handedness provides an important clue for that explanation. The book discusses several models that purport to explain the handedness, ultimately proposing a new explanation that involves cosmic processing of the amino acids produced in space. The book provides a tour for laypersons that includes a definition of life, the Big Bang, stellar nucleosynthesis, the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules, and supernovae and the particles they produce.

Stardust Supernovae and the Molecules of Life

Author : Richard N. Boyd
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This volume posits that not all amino acids originated on Earth, giving a detailed assessment of their ‘handedness’, a critical element in understanding their origin. Written in an accessible style, it discusses a number of models explaining handedness.

Creating the Molecules of Life

Author : Dr Richard N. Boyd
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Creating the Molecules of Life discusses origins, including the Big Bang, and the origin of the elements. With a complete presentation and explanation, this book provides evidence that the molecules of life are produced in outer space and how the SNAAP model purports to explain that origin. Extremophiles, which explains that evolution is robust enough to create life forms in a wide variety of conditions, is also presented. Readable for those at the upper undergraduate level, mathematics associated with coupling the nuclear spins to the molecular chirality is discussed. An accompanied appendix is provided to support mathematics.

Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life

Author : Horst Rauchfuss
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How did life begin on the early Earth? We know that life today is driven by the universal laws of chemistry and physics. By applying these laws over the past ?fty years, en- mous progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the foundations of the living state. For instance, just a decade ago, the ?rst human genome was published, all three billion base pairs. Using X-ray diffraction data from crystals, we can see how an enzyme molecule or a photosynthetic reaction center steps through its catalytic function. We can even visualize a ribosome, central to all life, translate - netic information into a protein. And we are just beginning to understand how molecular interactions regulate thousands of simultaneous reactions that continuously occur even in the simplest forms of life. New words have appeared that give a sense of this wealth of knowledge: The genome, the proteome, the metabolome, the interactome. But we can’t be too smug. We must avoid the mistake of the physicist who, as the twentieth century began, stated con?dently that we knew all there was to know about physics, that science just needed to clean up a few dusty corners. Then came relativity, quantum theory, the Big Bang, and now dark matter, dark energy and string theory. Similarly in the life sciences, the more we learn, the better we understand how little we really know. There remains a vast landscape to explore, with great questions remaining.

Exploring the Origin Extent and Future of Life

Author : Constance M. Bertka
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Philosophers, historians, ethicists, and theologians provide the perspectives of their fields on astrobiology for graduate students and researchers.

A Trajectory Description of Quantum Processes II Applications

Author : Ángel S. Sanz
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Trajectory-based formalisms are an intuitively appealing way of describing quantum processes because they allow the use of "classical" concepts. Beginning as an introductory level suitable for students, this two-volume monograph presents (1) the fundamentals and (2) the applications of the trajectory description of basic quantum processes. This second volume is focussed on simple and basic applications of quantum processes such as interference and diffraction of wave packets, tunneling, diffusion and bound-state and scattering problems. The corresponding analysis is carried out within the Bohmian framework. By stressing its interpretational aspects, the book leads the reader to an alternative and complementary way to better understand the underlying quantum dynamics.

First Life

Author : David Deamer
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Presents an exploration of the origin of life, including when and where life began, how cells are built, and evolution.

All or None

Author : Kenneth Willeford, MD
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The Bible claims that since the creation of the world Gods invisible qualities- his eternal power and divine nature- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made. Creation science evaluates this claim and presents scientific evidence that contradicts evolution. Since there are only two possibilities for the existence of life, becoming convinced that evolution is not true leads to a new or deeper belief in God. This is a new method to present the evolution and creation controversy in the context of a sequence of events which must all individually be evaluated to make a logical decision concerning belief in either. This unique approach with the use of logic, or common sense, leads to a personal conclusion of the most philosophic question imaginable- Is God Real?

Biomimetic Organic Synthesis

Author : Erwan Poupon
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In this exciting 2 volume set, the approach and methodology of bio-inspired synthesis of complex natural products is laid out, backed by abundant practical examples from the authors' own work as well as from the published literature. Volume 1 describes the biomimetic synthesis of alkaloids. Volume 2 covers terpenes, polyketides, and polyphenols. A discussion of the current challenges and frontiers in biomimetic synthesis concludes this comprehensive handbook. Key features: Biomimetic Strategies have become an every-day tool not only for chemists but also for biologists. The synthetic applications are overwhelming, making this comprehensive 2 volume work a must-have for everyone working in the field. Unifying both synthetic and biosynthetic aspects, this book covers everything from organocatalysis and natural product synthesis to synthetic biology and even green chemistry.

Lectures in Astrobiology

Author : Muriel Gargaud
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First comprehensive, beginning graduate level book on the emergent science of astrobiology.