Search results for: the-origin-of-the-inequality-of-the-social-classes

The Origin of the Inequality of the Social Classes

Author : Gunnar Landtman
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Originally published in 1938, The Origin of the Inequality of the Social Classes presents ethnological research into how rank and inequality has been created or formed in various societies. This study especially focuses on recent changes in aboriginal cultures with particular attention paid to the Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea whom Landtman researched extensively from 1910-1912. This title will be of interest to students of Sociology and Anthropology.

The Origin of the Inequality of the Social Classes

Author : Gunnar Landtman
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Originally published in 1938, The Origin of the Inequality of the Social Classes presents ethnological research into how rank and inequality has been created or formed in various societies. This study especially focuses on recent changes in aboriginal cultures with particular attention paid to the Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea whom Landtman researched extensively from 1910-1912. This title will be of interest to students of Sociology and Anthropology.

Repositioning Class

Author : Professor Gordon Marshall
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In recent years the death of social class has been regularly reported - such pronouncements have been as exaggerated as they were untimely. Social class is as important to the understanding of late twentieth-century industrial societies as it was to their early twentieth-century counterparts. This book aims to explain why class has persisted as such a potent social force. In Repositioning Class Gordon Marshall uses the comparative study of British experiences in relation to those of the United States, Scandinavia and the former communist countries of Eastern Europe. Also examined are cases where Britain provides the exclusive focus for discussion either about class itself, or about how sociologists might most usefully pursue class analysis in the future. Specific issues include: the question of meritocracy, the relationship between class and gender, arguments about proletarianization, collective identities and the nature of the so-called underclass in advanced societies.

Social Stratification and Inequality

Author : Harold R. Kerbo
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The Classless Society

Author : Paul W. Kingston
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Are there classes in America? In The Classless Society Paul Kingston forcefully answers no. This book directly challenges a long-standing intellectual tradition of class analysis, recently revitalized by such prominent scholars as Erik Olin Wright and John Goldthorpe. Insisting on a realist conception of class, Kingston argues that presumed "classes" do not significantly share distinct, life-defining experiences. Individual chapters assess the extent of class structuration in five dimensions of life: mobility (how demographically cohesive are classes?), interaction patterns (do classes exist as communal groups?), cultural orientation (are there class cultures, as Bourdieu and his followers maintain?), class sentiment (to what extent do objective position and subjective sentiments align?), and political orientations (do classes represent distinct political forces?). This broad assessment is the basis for Kingston's conclusion that classes do not exist in America in any meaningful way. The Classless Society analyzes prominent general "maps" of the American class structure, as well as the less-studied extremes of socioeconomic position ("Lives of the Rich and Poor"), the alleged emergence of post-industrial classes (the "New Class" and the "McProletariat"), and class structuration in other societies ("American Unexceptionalism"). Kingston rigorously addresses the question, "How would you recognize a class if you saw one?" thus establishing clear grounds for engaging the issue. He relates the findings and methods of the best contemporary research in substantial detail, allowing the reader to assess the book's conclusions from a thorough evidentiary base.

Dynamics of Class and Stratification in Poland 1945 2015

Author : Irina Tomescu-Dubrow
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This book is about long-term changes to class and inequality in Poland. Drawing upon major social surveys, the team of authors from the Polish Academy of Sciences offer the rare comprehensive study of important changes to the social structure from the communist era to the present. The core argument is that, even during extreme societal transformations, key features of social life have long-lasting, stratifying effects. The authors analyse the core issues of inequality research that best explain “who gets what and why:” social mobility, status attainment and their mechanisms, with a focus on education, occupation, and income. The transition from communist political economy to liberal democracy and market capitalism offers a unique opportunity for scholars to understand how people move from one stratifi cation regime to the next. There are valuable lessons to be learned from linking past to present. Classic issues of class, stratification, mobility, and attainment have endured decades of radical social change. These concepts remain valid even when society tries to eradicate them.

Social Inequality Stratification and Mobility

Author : Judah Matras
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Stratification

Author : Roger Keith Kelsall
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Exploring Social Inequality in the 21st Century

Author : Jennifer Jarman
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In a world where the effects of inequality occupy an increasingly prominent place on the public agenda, this book provides up-to-date and thorough analysis from the perspective of a group of researchers at the forefront of social stratification analysis. Exploring Social Inequality in the 21st Century is a clear and critical overview of current debates about social inequality. It includes new information, tools, and approaches to conceptualising and measuring social stratification and social class, as well as informative case studies. Throughout, the researchers describe the direct and indirect costs of social inequality. Divided into two parts – Conceptualising and Measuring Inequality; and Costs and Consequences of Inequality in the areas of Education, Employment, and Global Wealth – it includes new findings about the growth of wealth inequality in the G20 countries, and a detailed examination of tax policies designed to reduce inequality without affecting economic growth. With substantial contributions to the analysis of inequalities in education, and explanations of the processes and consequences of social and gender-based exclusion, this book is essential reading for anyone interested in understanding contemporary social inequality. This book was originally published as a special issue of the journal Contemporary Social Science.

Inequality Amid Affluence

Author : Junsuke Hara
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Highlighting the limits of existing approaches in the study of stratification in contemporary Japanese society, Inequality Amid Affluence adopts a new framework that distinguishes between the concepts of 'basic wealth' and 'upper wealth.' This book argues that most Japanese have attained a level of income in which they no longer suffer from poverty and starvation while the majority of Japanese children now advance to high school. Japan has therefore achieved an equalization of 'basic wealth.' However, at the same time, there has been no progress whatsoever towards the equalization of 'upper wealth.' Specifically, there is inequality in many areas including income, assets, academic background, occupation, gender and lifestyles. Japan can be characterized as an affluent society in which particular forms of inequality exist.

Stratification in Higher Education

Author : Yossi Shavit
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The mass expansion of higher education is one of the most important social transformations of the second half of the twentieth century. In this book, scholars from 15 countries, representing Western and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Israel, Australia, and the United States, assess the links between this expansion and inequality in the national context. Contrary to most expectations, the authors show that as access to higher education expands, all social classes benefit. Neither greater diversification nor privatization in higher education results in greater inequality. In some cases, especially where the most advantaged already have significant access to higher education, opportunities increase most for persons from disadvantaged origins. Also, during the late twentieth century, opportunities for women increased faster than those for men. Offering a new spin on conventional wisdom, this book shows how all social classes benefit from the expansion of higher education.

Social Stratification Class Race and Gender in Sociological Perspective Second Edition

Author : David Grusky
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This book assembles classic and contemporary articles representing the major sociological approaches to understanding social inequality. Although there are various competing texts covering issues of social inequality, this book is the only comprehensive source of classic and contemporary articles that have defined and redefined the contours of the field. The introductory articles in each section of the book provide examples of the major research traditions in the field, while the concluding essays (commissioned by leading scholars) provide broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues.. The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic articles that have defined the contours of the field. In this revised and updated second edition of Social Stratification , the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays (commissioned from leading scholars) providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. This comprehensive reader is designed as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on occupations, labor markets, or social mobility. The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic and contemporary articles that define the contours of the field. In this revised and updated edition of Social Stratification, the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays (commissioned from leading scholars) providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. The resulting collection of articles both celebrates the diversity of theoretical approaches and reveals the cumulative nature of ongoing research. This comprehensive reader is designed as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on social classes, occupations, labor markets, or social mobility. The following types of questions and debates are addressed in the six sections of the reader:Forms and Sources of Stratif ication: What are the major forms of inequality in human history? Can the ubiquity of inequality be attributed to individual differences in talent or ability? Is some form of inequality an inevitable feature of human life? The Structure of Contemporary Stratification: What are the principal fault lines or social cleavages that define the contemporary class structure? Have these cleavages strengthened or weakened with the transition to modernity and postmodernity? Generating Stratification: How frequently do individuals move into new classes, occupations, or income groups? Is there a permanent underclass? To what extent are occupational outcomes determined by such forces as intelligence, effort, schooling, aspirations, social contacts, and individual luck? The Consequences of Stratification: How are the life-styles, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals shaped by their class locations? Are there identifiable class cultures in past and present societies? Ascriptive Processes: What types of social processes and state policies serve to maintain or alter racial, ethnic, and sex discrimination in labor markets? Have these forms of discrimination weakened or strengthened with the transition to modernity and postmodernity?The Future of Stratification: Will stratification systems take on completely new and distinctive forms in the future? How unequal will these systems be? Is the concept of social class still useful in describing postmodern forms of stratification? Are stratification systems gradually shedding their distinctive features and converging towards some common (i.e., postmodern) regime?The volume offers essential reading for undergraduates who need an introduction to the field, for graduate students who wish to broaden their understanding of stratification research, and for advanced scholars who seek a basic reference guide. Although most of the selections are middle-range theoretical pieces suitable for introductory courses, the anthology also includes advanced contributions on the cutting edge of research. The editor outlines a modified study plan for undergraduate students requiring a basic introduction to the field.

Education Inequality and Social Class

Author : Ron Thompson
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Education, Inequality and Social Class provides a comprehensive discussion of the empirical evidence for persistent inequality in educational attainment. It explores the most important theoretical perspectives that have been developed to understand class-based inequality and frame further research. With clear explanations of essential concepts, this book draws on empirical data from the UK and other countries to illustrate the nature and scale of inequalities according to social background, discussing the interactions of class-based inequalities with those according to race and gender. The book relates aspects of inequality to the features of educational systems, showing how policy choices impact on the life chances of children from different class backgrounds. The relationship between education and social mobility is also explored, using the concepts of social closure, positionality and social congestion. The book also provides detailed discussions of the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Basil Bernstein, two important theorists whose contributions have generated thriving research traditions much used in contemporary educational research. Education, Inequality and Social Class will be essential reading for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students engaged in the study of education, childhood studies and sociology. It will also be of great interest to academics, researchers and teachers in training.

Class and Inequality in Norway

Author : Marianne Nordli Hansen
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Social Structure and Mobility in Economic Development

Author : Seymour Lipset
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The foundation of this volume is the notion that the several processes of change constituting economic and social development are systematically interrelated. The essence of development is the appearance of rapid rates of increases in many different indices--output per capita, political participation, literacy and the like. These quantitative changes are, however, commonly accompanied by vast changes in the social structure--markets emerge, political bureaucracies arise, and new educational systems appear. Written by the leading authorities on the subject, this group of papers tackles the causes and consequences of social mobility. Each author brings his particular skills to bear on various aspects of the problem in studies of persons moving from rural to urban settings, from one kind of industry to another and from one prestige level to another. Several of the papers review the theoretical and methodological issues involved in comparative research on social mobility while others compare and contrast traditional and modern stratification systems. Various papers explore the economic, religious and psychological basis of social mobility, concluding with enquiry into the consequences of rapid mobility, especially in terms of the political stability of developing nations. Because social mobility is a central consideration in any study of economic and social change, every student of change will use this pioneering reference source as a text for all future research. Contributors include Otis Dudley Duncan, Harold L. Wilensky, Michael G. Smith, Bert F. Hoselitz, Wilbert E. Moore, Natalie Rogoff Rams°y, Gideon Sjoberg, Reinhard Bendix, Harry Crockett, David Matza, Lester Seligman, and Gino Germani. Neil J. Smelser is emeritus professor, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley. Seymour Martin Lipset was professor of sociology and director of the Institute of International Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.

Class

Author : John Scott
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Ethnic Inequality in a Class Society

Author : Peter S. Li
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Ethnic Inequality in a Class Society is an important new study of the nature and scope of ethnic inequality in Canada. The economic prosperity of the post-war period and the growth of the welfare state have led to a widely-held assumption that basic equality and social justice are now well entrenched in Canadian society. Using previously unpublished data from the 1981 Census, the book examines this belief. It explores the influence of ethnic origin on the educational attainment, class position, and income levels of various ethnic groups in order to discover whether or not Canada offers the same opportunities to all citizens, regardless of ethnic origin or racial background. This study challenges the myths and misunderstandings about ethnicity and assesses the magnitude and meaning of ethnic inequality.

Social and Economic Inequality in the Soviet Union

Author : Murray Yanowitch
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This title was first published in 1977

Social Structure and Culture

Author : Hans Haferkamp
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The New Politics of Class

Author : Prof Klaus Eder
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Are contemporary societies organized by class? In recent years the apparent fragmentation of established class structures and the emergence of new social movements - in particular the women's movement and environmentalism - have altered the traditional expressions of class in society. At the same time, these changes have posed fundamental questions for the concept of class in sociology and political science. In this major reassessment, Klaus Eder offers a new perspective on the status of class in modernity. Drawing on a critique of Bourdieu, Touraine and Habermas, he outlines a cultural conception of class as the basis for understanding contemporary societies. His model reevaluates the role of the middle classes, traditionally the crux of class analysis, and links class to social theories of power and cultural capital. The result is a cultural theory of class which incorporates the changing forms of collective action and the new social movements of contemporary societies.