Search results for: through-spain-to-the-sahara

Through Spain to the Sahara

Author : Matilda Betham-Edwards
File Size : 71.18 MB
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Through Spain to the Sahara

Author : Matilda Betham-Edwards
File Size : 72.17 MB
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Meru Mountains

Author : S.V. Zharnikova
File Size : 79.87 MB
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Collection of scientific papers S.V. Zharnikova's "Meru Mountains" (Hyperborea and Aryan ancestral homeland) is devoted to the problem of identifying the main centers of the Aryan ancestral homeland - the Meru Mountains (Hara and Kukarya mountains, Riphean and Hyperborean mountains). The works presented in it give an answer to the question of their location. These articles outline the circle of lands of the ancestral home of the Indo-Europeans - Hyperboreans; find ancient Aryan cities, rivers, sacred reservoirs.

Western Sahara

Author : Pablo San Martin
File Size : 75.10 MB
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The Western Sahara is the last colony in Africa and the only Spanish-speaking territory in the Arab World. When in 1975 the agonising Francoist Spain abandoned hastily its colony, Morocco and Mauritania occupied the territory, despite the protest of the UN and the resistance of a nascent Saharawi liberation movement, the Frente Polisario. During the first months, the conflict displaced thousands of Saharawis to the neighbouring Algerian region of Tindouf, where almost 200,000 Saharawis still live today in four large refugee camps. But these camps are more than refugee settlements. They became the centre of a state founded by the Saharawi nationalists: the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, now recognised by over 60 states worldwide and full member of the African Union. The camps provided the opportunity to develop a process of nation-building and identity construction based on the principles of the revolutionary nationalism of the 1970s. This book explores the dynamic process of construction of the new Saharawi identity, culture and society developed in the refugee camps over the three last decades of conflict and analyses the complex articulation of elements from the Hispanic, Arab and African worlds that shapes the contours of the Saharawi Refugee Nation.

Beijing Review

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Endgame in the Western Sahara

Author : Toby Shelley
File Size : 35.71 MB
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Why does this remote swathe of Sahara along the Atlantic seaboard concern the USA and Europe? Why does Morocco maintain its occupation? Why has the UN Security Council prevaricated for three decades while the Sahrawis live under Moroccan rule or as refugees? In this revealing book, Toby Shelley examines the geopolitics involved. He brings out: The little-known struggle of Sahrawis living under Moroccan rule to defend their identity. USA/European competition for influence in the Maghreb. The natural resources at stake -- rich fishing grounds, phosphates, and the prospect of oil. The reasons behind the UN failure to resolve what is now Africa's last decolonisation issue. The evolution of the USA-backed Baker Plan to settle the dispute. How the Western Sahara's history and future is tangled up with Moroccan--Algerian rivalry. The political development of Polisario, independence movement and state-in-waiting. Toby Shelley has talked to Polisario, Moroccan, Algerian and other diplomats. He has visited the territory and had access to opposition activists and Moroccan officials. In the refugee camps he interviewed the leadership of Polisario. What emerges is that the fate of the Western Sahara is being moulded by global and regional forces and that it is the Sahrawis under Moroccan rule who are best placed to influence that fate.

Western Sahara

Author : Stephen Zunes
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The Western Sahara conflict has proven to be one of the most protracted and intractable struggles facing the international community. Pitting local nationalist determination against Moroccan territorial ambitions, the dispute is further complicated by regional tensions with Algeria and the geo-strategic concerns of major global players, including the United States, France, and the territory’s former colonial ruler, Spain. Since the early 1990s, the UN Security Council has failed to find a formula that will delicately balance these interests against Western Sahara’s long-denied right to a self-determination referendum as one of the last UN-recognized colonies. The widely-lauded first edition was the first book-length treatment of the issue in the previous two decades. Zunes and Mundy examined the origins, evolution, and resilience of the Western Sahara conflict, deploying a diverse array of sources and firsthand knowledge of the region gained from multiple research visits. Shifting geographical frames—local, regional, and international—provided for a robust analysis of the stakes involved. With the renewal of the armed conflict, continued diplomatic stalemate, growing waves of nonviolent resistance in the occupied territory, and the recent U.S. recognition of Morocco’s annexation, this new revised and expanded paperback edition brings us up-to-date on a long-forgotten conflict that is finally capturing the world’s attention.

Territorial Integrity in a Globalizing World

Author : Abdelhamid El Ouali
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This book offers a comprehensive, highly informative and interdisciplinary study on territorial integrity and the challenges globalization, self-determination and external interventions present. This study aims at not only to fill an epistemological gap in this regard, but also answer the question of whether International Law is adequately equipped to help states address these challenges. The author argues that the biggest threat that many states are confronted with today is their disintegration rather than their obsolescence, and that International Law has not often been able to prevent that eventuality. In fact, states, when they were not destroyed by war, managed to survive, thanks to the flexibility of territoriality, i.e. their ability to adjust to difficult situations as they arose. It is this understanding of adaptation that urges an increasing number of states today to revive territorial autonomy and restore an original understanding of self-determination in which democracy is a pivotal factor in establishing congruence between the states and their nations. While this move is endorsed by International Law, it is not the case for globalization; for their own sake, proponents of globalization should recognize that the states are irreplaceable as long as they remain the sole providers of protection for their peoples.

Landmark Cases in Public International Law

Author : Eric Heinze
File Size : 55.51 MB
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This book contains excerpts "in extenso from leading cases in general international law, and seeks to provide a greater volume of case law than that currently available on the market. It contains no editorial commentary and no secondary literature, as these are widely available in other works. It can serve either as a principal text or as a supplement to other standard books. It is thoroughly up to date, including recent ICJ judgments on the Bosnia case, the Gavcmkovo-Nagymaros Project, the Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons, and the Lockerbie case. It will be of inestimable value to all libraries of international law, large and small, institutional and private. No student or practitioner in the field should be without it.

African Immigrants in Contemporary Spanish Texts

Author : Debra Faszer-McMahon
File Size : 71.61 MB
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Around the turn of 21st Century, Spain welcomed more than six million foreigners, many of them from various parts of the African continent. How African immigrants represent themselves and are represented in contemporary Spanish texts is the subject of this interdisciplinary collection. Analyzing blogs, films, translations, and literary works by contemporary authors including Donato Ndongo (Ecquatorial Guinea), Abderrahman El Fathi (Morocco), Chus Gutiérrez (Spain), Juan Bonilla (Spain), and Bahia Mahmud Awah (Western Sahara), the contributors interrogate how Spanish cultural texts represent, idealize, or sympathize with the plight of immigrants, as well as the ways in which immigrants themselves represent Spain and Spanish culture. At the same time, these works shed light on issues related to Spain’s racial, ethnic, and sexual boundaries; the appeal of images of Africa in the contemporary marketplace; and the role of Spain’s economic crisis in shaping attitudes towards immigration. Taken together, the essays are a convincing reminder that cultural texts provide a mirror into the perceptions of a society during times of change.