Search results for: two-phase-flow-heat-exchangers

Two Phase Flow Heat Exchangers

Author : Sadik Kakaç
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Two-phase flow heat exchangers are vital components of systems for power generation, chemical processing, and thermal environment control. The art and science of the design of such heat exchangers have advanced considerably in recent years. This is due to better understanding of the fundamentals of two-phase flow and heat transfer in simple geometries, greater appreciation of these processes in complex goemetries, and enhanced predictive capability through use of complex computer codes. The subject is clearly of great fundamental and practical importance. The NATO ASIan Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design of Two-Phase Flow Heat Exchangers was held in Povoa de Varzim (near Porto), Portugal, July 6-17, 1987. participating in the organization of" the ASI were the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami; Universidade do Porto; and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Eng ineer ing, and Mechanics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The ASI was arranged primarily as a high-level teaching activity by experts representing both academic and industrial viewpoints. The program included the presentation of invited lectures, a limited number of related technical papers and discussion sessions.

Modeling Two Phase Flow Heat Exchangers for Next Generation Aircraft

Author : Hayder Hasan Jaafar Al-sarraf
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Two-phase heat exchangers offer the potential of significant energy transfer by taking advantage of the latent heat of vaporization as the working fluid changes phase. Unfortunately, the flow physics of the phase change process is very complex and there are significant gaps in the fundamental knowledge of how several key parameters are affected by the phase change process. Therefore, an initial investigation modeling a two-phase flow heat exchanger has been accomplished. Many key assumptions have been defined which are critical to modeling two-phase flows. This research lays an initial foundation on which further investigations can build upon. Two-phase heat exchangers will be a critical enabling technology for several key aerospace advancements in the 21st century.In this research, modeling two- phase flow heat exchangers to be used in modeling of NASA's next generation aircraft (N3- X) is accomplished. The heat exchanger model, which could be a condenser or an evaporator, currently accommodates two working fluids; kerosene (jet fuel) and a refrigerant (R134a). The primary goal is to obtain a dynamic, robust model by using numerical simulation tools (MATLAB/ SIMULINK) which can simulate the system efficiently and would be used in the conceptual aircraft (N3-X) model. The final goal of this project is to investigate the influence of pressure and enthalpy perturbations on the system. In other words, how quickly this system responds to change to perturbations, therefore the model will be transient. Two examples are used for demonstration of the transient response of a two- phase heat exchanger to a perturbation in pressure and enthalpy. Initially, pressure perturbation variation effects on how the quality of R134a effects the magnitude of the two- phase flow heat transfer coefficient, therefore the two- phase heat transfer rate calculated. This changing pressure approach used to provide a rapid thermal response to a rapid thermal load variation. Other conventional thermal methods (decreasing the temperature of the cold fluid or increasing the mass flow rate) results in slower response times than changing the pressure. For this analysis, a sample time of 0.000001 seconds was used.In addition, an enthalpy perturbation was investigated. Since, changing pressure suddenly from higher value (650 kPa) to the lower value (555 kPa) is not a real, physical scenario in life, the pressure change with transfer function would be employed to transform the system into first order system with two different time constants. Eventually, the time constant of the system plays a significant role in obtaining a quicker response.

Encyclopedia of Two Phase Heat Transfer and Flow IV

Author : John R Thome
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Set IV is a new addition to the previous Sets I, II and III. It contains 23 invited chapters from international specialists on the topics of numerical modeling of pulsating heat pipes and of slug flows with evaporation; lattice Boltzmann modeling of pool boiling; fundamentals of boiling in microchannels and microfin tubes, CO2 and nanofluids; testing and modeling of micro-two-phase cooling systems for electronics; and various special topics (flow separation in microfluidics, two-phase sensors, wetting of anisotropic surfaces, ultra-compact heat exchangers, etc.). The invited authors are leading university researchers and well-known engineers from leading corporate research laboratories (ABB, IBM, Nokia Bell Labs). Numerous 'must read' chapters are also included here for the two-phase community. Set IV constitutes a 'must have' engineering and research reference together with previous Sets I, II and III for thermal engineering researchers and practitioners.

Advances in Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

Author : Sadik Kakaç
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Over the past two decades, two-phase flow and heat transfer problems associated with two-phase phenomena have been a challenge to many investigators. Two-phase flow applications are found in a wide range of engineering systems, such as nuclear and conventional power plants, evaporators of refrigeration systems and a wide vari ety of evaporative and condensive heat exchangers in the chemical industry. This publication is based on the invited lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Advances in Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer. The Horkshop was attended by more than 50 leading scientists and practicing engineers who work actively on two-phase flow and heat transfer research and applications in dif ferent sectors (academia, government, industry) of member countries of NATO. Some scientific leaders and experts on the subject matter from the non-NATO countries were also invited. They convened to discuss the state-of-the-art in two-phase flow and heat transfer and formulated recommendations for future research directions. To achieve these goals, invited key papers and a limited number of contributions were presented and discussed. The specific aspects of the subject were treated in depth in the panel sessions, and the unresolved problems identified. Suitable as a practical reference, these volumes incorporate a systematic approach to two-phase flow analysis.

Two phase Flow in Pipelines and Heat Exchangers

Author : Duncan Chisholm
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Two Phase Flow Distribution in Parallel Flow Heat Exchangers Experimentally Verified Model

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Encyclopedia Of Two phase Heat Transfer And Flow I Fundamentals And Methods A 4 volume Set

Author : Thome John R
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The aim of the two-set series is to present a very detailed and up-to-date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods.Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condensation in plate heat exchangers. All of these chapters include the latest methods for predicting not only local heat transfer coefficients but also pressure drops.Professors and students will find this 'Encyclopediaa of Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Flow' particularly exciting, as it contains authored books and thorough state-of-the-art reviews on many basic and special topics, such as numerical modeling of two-phase heat tranfser and adiabatic bubbly and slug flows, the unified annular flow boiling model, flow pattern maps, condensation and boiling theories, new emerging topics, etc.

Phase Separation in Two phase Microfluidic Heat Exchangers

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Two-phase microfluidic heat exchangers have the potential to meet the large heat dissipation demands of high power electronics and computing systems. Two-phase cooling systems face practical challenges brought on by the growth and advection of the vapor phase in the confined geometries, which lead to large pressure drops, increased thermal resistance and the formation of detrimental flow instabilities. One proposed solution to these issues is phase separation, whereby the vapor is locally separated from the two-phase flow through a porous hydrophobic membrane. This dissertation describes a series of studies conducted to develop an understanding of the factors that influence vapor separation and its impact on the hydraulic and thermal characteristics of two-phase heat exchangers. Flow phenomena are a critical component in developing this understanding of phase separation. High speed visualization of adiabatic and diabatic vaporizing flows was carried out in a single 124[Mu]m by 98[Mu]m copper microchannel with a 65[Mu]m thick, 220nm pore diameter hydrophobic PTFE membrane wall. During adiabatic air-water flow, wavy-stratified and stratified flow dominated lower liquid velocities, while plug and annular type flows dominated at the higher velocities. Analysis found that air removal could be improved by increasing the venting area, increasing the trans-membrane pressure or using thinner, high permeability membranes. Diabatic water-vapor experiments with mass flux velocities of 140 and 340 kg/s-m2 and exit qualities up to 20% found that stratified type flows dominate at lower mass fluxes while cyclical churn-annular flow became more prevalent at the higher mass-flux and quality. The observed flow regimes are hypothesized to play a significant role in determining the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling. To study the impact of various geometric and membrane factors on the performance of a phase separating microchannel heat exchanger dissipating 100W of heat, a numerical model incorporating vapor separation and transport during two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel was developed. The impact of substrate thermal conductivity and thickness, membrane permeability and thickness, liquid channel density, liquid and vent channel diameter and vent-to-liquid channel diameter ratio was studied and compared for a standard non-venting heat exchanger, a vapor venting heat exchanger and a non-venting heat exchanger occupying the same increased volume as the venting heat exchanger. The numerical study found that the venting heat exchanger had improved pressure drop and device temperatures for all tested conditions when compared against a standard heat exchanger but only under very limited conditions when compared against the volumetrically equivalent non-venting heat exchanger. The study indicates that the best venting heat exchanger performance is achieved when the membrane conductance is of the same order or higher than that of the microchannel; this can be achieved through the use of thin high permeability membranes coupled with small hydraulic diameter microchannels. Finally, a study was conducted to explore the fabrication methods to build a vapor separating heat exchanger and to quantify the operating performance of multichannel silicon and copper phase separating devices. A copper parallel microchannel heat exchanger with nineteen 130[Mu]m square microchannels was built and tested at heat fluxes of up to 820 kW/m2 and water mass fluxes of between 102 and 420 kg/s-m2. Normalized pressure drop was improved by as much as 60% and average substrate temperature by a maximum of 4.4°C between the non-venting control and vapor venting device under similar operating conditions. Comparison between the experimental results and simulation predictions found higher than expected pressure drop improvements at higher mass fluxes and poorer heat transfer coefficients at the lowest mass flux. Based on the flow phenomena study

Encyclopedia Of Two phase Heat Transfer And Flow Ii Special Topics And Applications A 4 volume Set

Author : Thome John R
File Size : 76.13 MB
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The aim of the two-set series is to present a very detailed and up-to-date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods.Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condensation in plate heat exchangers. All of these chapters include the latest methods for predicting not only local heat transfer coefficients but also pressure drops.Professors and students will find this 'Encyclopedia of Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Flow' particularly exciting, as it contains authored books and thorough state-of-the-art reviews on many basic and special topics, such as numerical modeling of two-phase heat transfer and adiabatic bubbly and slug flows, the unified annular flow boiling model, flow pattern maps, condensation and boiling theories, new emerging topics, etc.

Analytical Study of Two phase flow Heat Exchangers for OTEC Systems

Author : H. Lowell Olsen
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